IRON CONTENT, HARDNESS AND ACCEPTABILITY OF BISCUITS FROM COMPOSITE CASSAVA AND WHEAT FLOURS SUBSTITUTED WITH GREEN SPINACH FLOUR

Rusdin Rauf, Nurdiana Nurdiana, Dwi Sarbini

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23917/jurnal%20kesehatan.v11i1.6998

Abstract

The main cause of the high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia of children in Indonesia is the low intake of iron. Green spinach flour as a source of iron can be used as a substitution material in the manufacture of biscuits. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of green spinach flour substitution on iron, hardness and acceptance levels of biscuits from composite cassava flour and wheat flour. The research was conducted by substituting the green spinach flour with various levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5%. The biscuits were then tested for the iron using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), hardness using texture analyzer and acceptability. The results indicated that there was a substitution effect of green spinach flour to iron and acceptability of biscuits, whereas, there was no effect on the hardness. The higher the substitution of green spinach flour, the higher the iron level of the biscuit. The highest iron level was displayed by biscuit with the substitution of 7.5%, which was 89.82mg/kg. The hardness of biscuits was not affected by the substitution of green spinach flour. The range of biscuit hardness levels was between 2592.16g - 3985.83g. Biscuit with 5% substitution of green spinach flour gave the highest acceptability. The iron requirement of Indonesian school-age children (7-9 years) can be fulfilled by consuming biscuits (5% green spinach flour) as much as 14 grams or equivalent to 3 pieces of biscuit for a day.

Keywords

Acceptability, biscuit, hardness, iron, spinach

Full Text:

PDF

References

Almatsier, S. (2010). Prinsip Dasar Ilmu Gizi. Gramedia Pustaka. Jakarta.

Arisman. (2010). Gizi dalam Daur Kehidupan. EGC. Jakarta.

Balitbang Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2013). Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Balitbang Kemenkes RI. Jakarta.

Borneo, R., Aguirre, A. (2008). Chemical Composition, Cooking Quality, and Cosumer Acceptance of Pasta Made with Dried Amaranth Leaves Flour. Journal of Food Sience and Technology, 41(2008), 1748-1751.

Choy, Ai-ling., J.G. Hughes, D.M., Small. (2010). The Effect of Microbial Transglutaminase, Sodium Steroyl Lactylate and Water on The Quality of Instant Fried Noodles. Journal of Food Chemistry, 122, 957-964.

Corwin, Elizabeth, J. (2009). Handbook of Pathophysiologi, 3rd Ed. EGC. Jakarta.

Fitriyani. (2013). Eksperimen Pembuatan Roti Tawar dengan Penggunaan Sari Bayam (Amaranthus sp). Food Science and Culinary Education Journal, 2252-6587.

Gardjito, M., Djuwardi, A., Harmayani, E. (2013). Pangan Nusantara. Kencana Prenada Media Group. Jakarta.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2013). Permenkes RI NO 75 Tahun 2013 tentang Angka Kecukupan Gizi yang Dianjurkan bagi Bangsa Indonesia. Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Jakarta.

Kementerian Pertanian. (2015). Rencana Strategis Kementerian Pertanian Tahun 2015-2019. Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia.

Khan, M. A., C. Mahesh, Anil Dutt Semwal, G. K. Sharma. (2015). Effect of spinach powder on physico-chemical, rheological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of chapati premixes. J Food Sci Technol. 2015 Apr; 52(4): 2359–2365.

Maramag, C. C., JD Ribaya-Mercado, P Rayco-Solon, JAA Solon, LW Tengco, JB Blumberg, FS Solon. (2010). Influence Of Carotene-Rich Vegetable Meals On The Prevalence Of Anaemia And Iron Deficiency In Filipino Schoolchildren. European Journal Of Clinical Nutrition 64, 468-474 (2010).

Nurdiana, Istinganah, M., Rahmatika, N. A. (2015). Tingkat Keretakan dan Daya Terima Biskuit dari Campuran Tepung Singkong dan Tepung Terigu. Laporan Penelitian Program Studi Ilmu Gizi Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta. Surakarta.

Nwakalor, Chizoba, N. (2014). Sensory Evaluation of Cookies Produced from Different Blends of Wheat and moringa Oleifera Leaf Flour. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 307-310.

Ogbadoyi, E.O., Amanabo, M., Johnson, A. O., Matthew, I. S. E. (2011). Effect of Processing Methods On Some Nutrients, Antinutrients and Toxic Substances In Amaranthus Cruentus. International Journal Of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology Vol 2.

Oluwamukomi, M. O.,I. B. Oluwalana, and O. F. Akinbowale. (2011). Physicochemical and sensory properties of wheat-cassava composite biscuit enriched with soy flour. African Journal of Food Science Vol. 5 (2) pp. 50 - 56 February 2011.

Pereira, R. C., Alcides, D. S. D., Luiz, O. C. F,. (2004). New Findings On Iron Absorbtion Conditioning Factors. 4 (3): 241-248 Juli 2004.

Rao, G.N., P.G. Prabhakara Rao, G. Sulochanamma, A. Satyanarayana. (2015). Physico-chemical Amino acid composition, fatty acid profile, functional and antioxidant properties of Spinacia oleracea L. Leaf. Journal of food and Pharmaceutical Sciences 3(2015)27-37.

Rauf, R. (2015). Kimia Pangan. C.V Andi Offset. Yogyakarta.

Rauf, R., Sarbini, D., (2015). Daya Serap Air sebagai Acuan untuk Menentukan Volume Air dalam Pembuatan Adonan dari Campuran Tepung Terigu dan Tepung Singkong. Agritech, 35 (3): 324-330.

Salawu, K., Barau, M. M., Mohammed, D., Mikailu, D.A., Abdullahi, B.H. and Uroko, R.I., (2016). Determination of some selected heavy metals in spinach and irrigated water from Samaru Area within Gusau Metropolis in Zamfara State, Nigeria. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 7(8): 76-80.

Samman, S., (2007). Iron. Nutrition & Dietetics, 64 (Suppl. 4): S126 - S130

Sindhuja, A., Sudha, M. L., & Rahim, A. (2005). Effect of incorporation of amaranth flour on the quality of cookies. European Food Research Technology, 221, 597–601.

Zhang, D., Deloy G. H., Arthur W. M., Daren P. C. (1985). Bioavailability of Iron in Green Peas, Spinach, Bran Cereal, and Cornmeal fed to Anemic Rats. Journal of Food Science. Voleme 50, Issue 2, p 426-428, March 1985.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 115 time(s)
PDF: 101 time(s)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.