GAMBARAN HISTOPATOLOGI EKSPRESI INTERFERON GAMMA (IFNγ) PADA FIBROADENOMA MAMMAE (FAM) DAN INVASIVE NO SPECIAL TYPE (NST) BREAST CARCINOMA

Yuni Prastyo K, Udadi Sadhana, Dik Puspasari

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23917/biomedika.v9i2.5843

Abstract

International Agency for Research Cancer tahun 2012 melaporkan bahwa 1,7 juta wanita menderita kanker payudara. Penyakit ini masih menjadi penyebab utama kematian kanker pada wanita. Fibroadenoma merupakan lesi jinak payudara yang sering ditemukan. Terdapat 50% dari seluruh biopsi payudara.. Morfologi terbanyak pada keganasan payudara adalah Invasive NST breast carcinoma sebanyak 70%-80%. Berbagai faktor terlibat dalam pertumbuhan tumor payudara, antara lain genetika, diet, faktor reproduksi, hormon dan imunitas. Gangguan mekanisme imun memiliki peran penting pada patogenesis terjadinya tumor. Wanita dengan tumor payudara memperlihatkan adanya kekacauan pada sistem imun tubuh. Hal ini ditandai dengan rendahnya kadar Interferon ᵧ dan peningkatan IL4, IL6 serta IL10. Murine melaporkan tentang peran penting Interferon ᵧ dalam kekebalan tumor. Ketika terjadi penurunan kadarnya, secara spontan akan memicu tumbuhnya tumor. Interferon ᵧ sitotoksik pada beberapa sel-sel ganas dan memiliki aktivitas anti-angiogenik. Namun, penggunaannya di klinis masih terbatas. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk membuktikan adanya perbedaan ekspresi Interferon ᵧ pada sediaan histopatologi. yang terdiagnosis sebagai fibroadenoma mammae intrakanalikular dan perikanalikular variant (FAM) dan Invasive No Special Type (NST) breast carcinoma. Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian analitik observasional dengan desain case control. Sampel terbagi 2 yaitu kelompok dengan diagnosa  fibroadenoma mammae intrakanalikular dan perikanalikular variant  sebanyak 10 sampel dan kelompok Invasive NST breast carcinoma  sebanyak 27 sampel. kemudian dilanjutkan pemeriksaan imunohistokimia interferon γ. Data yang terkumpul tidak terdistribusi normal, sehingga dilakukan uji non-parametrik dengan menggunakan uji Fishers exact dan hipotesis satu arah (one-sided). Data hasil Penelitian diolah menggunakan uji Fisher’s exact dan hipotesis satu arah (one sided) dan didapatkan tingkat signifikansi p = 0.036 (p < 0.05). Terdapat perbedaan proporsi ekspresi Interferon γ yang positif antara FAM intrakanalikular dan perikanalikular variant dan NST, di mana proporsi ekspresi positif Interferon γ pada FAM intrakanalikular dan perikanalikular variant lebih besar dari pada NST. Secara statistik perbedaan ini bermakna (p < 0.05). Dapat disimpulan bahwa terdapat perbedaan bermakna tentang ekspresi interferon ᵧ pada sediaan histopatologi fibroadenoma mammae intrakanalikular dan perikanalikular variant dibanding pada sediaan Invasive NST breast carcinoma Kata

Kunci: Interferon γ, fibroadenoma mammae, Invasive breast carcinoma of No Special Type

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