UJI EFEK HAMBATAN ATORVASTATIN TERHADAP PEMBENTUKAN SKAR HIPERTROFI PADA KELINCI NEW ZEALAND (Kajian terhadap morfologi klinis ketinggian jaringan skar, Scar Elevation Index, kepadatan kolagen, dan ekspresi VEGF)

Devi Usdiana Rosyidah, Indwiani Astuti, Sitarina Widyarini

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23917/biomedika.v10i1.5848

Abstract

Skar hipertrofi dan keloid bagian dari jaringan parut patologis yang insiden kejadiannya masih tinggi. Keduanya mengganggu secara estetik, fisiologik, psikologik, dan sering tumbuh kembali setelah pengobatan. Belum ada terapi standar baku emas untuk skar hipertrofi dan keloid. Efek pleiotropik statin berpotensi sebagai anti skar baru. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek hambatan pembentukan skar hipertrofi dengan pemberian salep atorvastatin pada model luka skar di telinga kelinci New Zealand. Kelinci New Zealand usia 4-6 bulan (n=29) dilakukan randomisasi kedalam lima kelompok. Setelah aklimatisasi 1 minggu, dilakukan pembuatan luka model skar hipertrofi pada kedua telinga kelinci dengan punch biopsy (d=8 mm). Jumlah luka 2 buah di masing- masing telinga kanan dan kiri. Pada hari ke-7 setelah punch biopsy, kelompok I, II, III dioles salep atorvastatin dengan konsentrasi masing-masing 5%, 10%, dan 20%. Kelompok IV dioles salep clobetasol propionate 0,05% sebagai kontrol positif, dan kelompok V dioles dengan basis salep (lanolin vaselin 1:1) sebagai kontrol negatif. Frekuensi pengolesan salep pada luka ditelinga kelinci tersebut 1 kali/hari, dengan lama pengolesan selama 50 hari kedepan. Setiap hari dilakukan pengukuran morfologi klinis ketinggian skar. Pada hari ke 56 setelah punch biopsy, dilakukan penilaian akhir morfologi klinis jaringan skar hipertrofi, kemudian kelinci didekapitasi, diambil jaringan skar hipertrofi kemudian dibuat preparat histologis (HE, Von Gieson) dan imunohistokimia (VEGF). Salep atorvastatin 5% mampu menghambat pembentukan skar hipertrofi pada telinga kelinci New Zealand dengan nilai median skoring ketinggian jaringan skar sebesar 1(1-3), nilai SEI rata-rata sebesar 1,49±0,37 mm, dan nilai ekspresi VEGF sebesar 12,71±4,27%. Salep atorvastatin 5% mempunyai potensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai obat penghambat pembentukan skar hipertrofi baru dengan mekanisme penghambatan terhadap VEGF. Untuk pengembangan obat ini diperlukan penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai kapan waktu yang paling tepat mulai dioleskan salep atorvastatin setelah terjadi luka berisiko terbentuknya skar hipertrofi.

 

Kata kunci: Atorvastatin, skar hipertrofi, VEGF, telinga kelinci.

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