POLA BAKTERI DAN ANTIBIOGRAM PENYEBAB ULKUS DIABETIKUM DI RSUD ARIFIN ACHMAD PROVINSI RIAU PERIODE 2015 – 2018

Dewi Anggraini, Indra Yovi, Riza Yefri, Erwin Christianto, Eka Zulya Syahputri

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23917/biomedika.v12i1.9316

Abstract

ABSTRAK

Ulkus diabetikum adalah salah satu komplikasi dari diabetes mellitus. Ulkus ini terjadi akibat kerusakan  sistem saraf dan pembuluh darah akibat dari hiperglikemia yang tidak terkontrol. Kurangnya nutrisi dari pembuluh darah serta penurunan sensasi akibat kerusakan jaringan saraf memudahkan terjadinya ulserasi infeksi. Pola bakteri ulkus diabetikum dan resistensi antibiotik perlu diketahui untuk meningkatkan kesembuhan bagi pasien. Penelitian ini dilakukan di RS X Riau periode tahun 2015-2018. Data penelitian didapatkan dari Laboratorium Mikrobiologi RS X Riau. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Klebsiella pneumonia adalah bakteri yang paling banyak menginfeksi penderita ulkus diabetikum di Rumah Sakit ini yaitu sebesar 17,9%. Bakteri lain yang menjadi penyebab adalah Escherichia coli (16,5%), Staphylococcus aureus (16,5%), Acinetobacter baumanii (14,7%) dan Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8,7%). Uji sensitivitas antibiotik menunjukkan bahwa Klebsiella pneumonia dan Escherichia coli paling sensitif terhadap antibiotik ertapenem, meropenem, amikacin dan tigecycline. Staphylococcus aureus ditemukan sangat resisten terhadap cefoxitine. Acinetobacter baumanii sensitif terhadap amikacin dan tigecycline, sedangkan Pseudomonas aeruginosa 100% resisten terhadap ampicillin, sefazolin, seftriakson, tygecycline, dan kotrimoksazol.

Kata Kunci: Ulkus Diabetikum, Pola Bakteri, Pola Resistensi, Sensitifitas, Antibiotik

 

ABSTRACT

Diabetic ulcer is a condition of diabetes’s complication. These ulcers occur due to damage of nerve tissues and blood vessels caused by uncontrolled hyperglycemia. Lack of nutrition from blood vessels and decreased sensation due to nerve tissue damage facilitates ulceration of the infection. It is important to know how the pattern of bacteria and antibiotic’s resistance to improve disease’s prognosis. This research was conducted at X Hospital Riau in the 2015-2018 periods. The research data was obtained from the Microbiology Laboratory of X Hospital Riau. The results showed that Klebsiella pneumonia was the most infecting bacterium with diabetic ulcer patients at this hospital, which was 17.9%. Other bacteria that cause are Escherichia coli (16.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), Acinetobacter baumanii (14.7%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.7%). Antibiotic sensitivity tests show that Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli are most sensitive to ertapenem, meropenem, amikacin and tigecycline antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be very resistant to cefoxitine. Acinetobacter baumanii sensitive to amikacin and tigecycline and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 100% resistant to ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, tygecycline, and cotrimoxazole.

Keywords: Diabetic Ulcer, Bacterial Pattern, Resistance Pattern, Sensitivity, Antibiotics

References

Akbar, G.T., Karimi, J., dan Anggraini, D., 2014. Pola Bakteri dan Resistensi Antibiotik pada Ulkus Diabetik Grade Dua di RSUD Arifin Achmad Periode 2012. J. Online Mhs. Fak. Kedokt. Univ. Riau 1, 1–15.

Amelia, A., Nugroho, A., dan Harijanto, P.N., 2016. Diagnosis and Management of Infections Caused by Enterobacteriaceae Producing Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamase. Acta Med. Indones. 48, 156–166.

Chaudhry, W.N., Badar, R., Jamal, M., Jeong, J., Zafar, J., and Andleeb, S., 2016. Clinico-microbiological study and antibiotic resistance profile of mecA and ESBL gene prevalence in patients with diabetic foot infections. Exp. Ther. Med. 11, 1031–1038. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2016.2996

Datta, P., Chander, J., Gupta, V., Mohi, G.K., and Attri, A.K., 2019. Evaluation of various risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant organisms isolated from diabetic foot ulcer patients. J. Lab. Physicians 11, 58–62. https://doi.org/10.4103/JLP.JLP_106_18

Dinas Kesehatan Riau, 2016. Profil Kesehatan Provinsi Riau 2015. Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Riau, Pekanbaru.

Donastin, A., dan Aisyah, A., 2019. Microbial Pattern Of Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient In Jemursari Islamic Hospital Surabaya Periode 2012-2016. Indones. J. Med. Lab. Sci. Technol. 1. https://doi.org/10.33086/ijmlst.v1i1.914

Febrianto, A.W., Mukaddas, A., dan Faustine, I., 2013. Rasionalitas penggunaan antibiotic pada pasien infeksi saluran kemih (ISK) di instalasi rawat inap RSUD Undata Palu tahun 2012. Natural Science 2, 20-29.

International Diabetes Federation (IDF), 2019. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn [WWW Document]. URL http://www.diabetesatlas.org

Kurnia, S., Sumangkut, R., dan Hatibie, M., 2017. Perbandingan Kepekaan Pola Kuman Ulkus Diabetik Terhadap Pemakaian PHMB Gel dan NaCl Gel Secara Klinis. J. BIOMEDIK 9.

Muneebullah, Abbasi, A.S., Niaz, S., and Mahjbeen, W., 2019. Commonly Occurring Bacteria in Diabetic Foot Infections and their Sensitivity to various Antibiotics. J. Islam. Med. Dent. Coll. 8.

Utami, N.L.A.M.I.E.P., 2018. Peta isolasi bakteri dan sensitifitasnya pada penderita gangren diabetic di Rumah Sakit Angkatan Laut dr. Ramelan Surabaya. Hang Tuah Med. J. 16.

Nur, A. dan Marissa, N., 2016. Gambaran Bakteri Ulkus Diabetikum di Rumah Sakit Zainal Abidin dan Meuraxa Tahun 2015. Bul. Penelit. Kesehat. 44. https://doi.org/10.22435/bpk.v44i3.5048.187-196

Otta, S., Debata, N., and Swain, B., 2019. Bacteriological profile of diabetic foot ulcers. CHRISMED J. Heal. Res. 6, 7–11. https://doi.org/10.4103/cjhr.cjhr_117_17

Rahim, F., Ullah, F., Ishfaq, M., Afridi, A.K., Rahman, S., and Rahman, H., 2016. Frequency of Common Bacteria and Their Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern In Diabetics Presenting with Foot Ulcer. J. Ayub Med. Coll. Abbottabad 28.

Rinaldo, C., dan Farhanah, N., 2017. Hubungan Antara Pola Kuman Dengan Infeksi Kaki Diabetik Berdasarkan Derajat Pedis Di Rsup Dr. Kariadi Semarang. J. Kedokt. Diponegoro 6, 385–401.

Riskesdas, 2018. Laporan Nasional RISKESDAS 2018. Badan Litbang Kesehatan Kemenkes RI, Jakarta.

Rudijanto, A., Yuwono, A., Shahab, A., Manaf, A., Pramono, B., Lindarto, D., Purnamasari, D., Sanusi, H., Zufry, H., Novida, H., Suastika, K., Sucipto, K.W., Sasiarini, L., Dwipayana, M.P., Saraswati, M.R., Soetedjo, N.N., Soewondo, P., Soelistijo, S.A., Sugiarto, dan Langi, Y.A., 2015. Konsensus Pengelolaan dan Pencegahan Diabetes Melitus tipe 2 di Indonesia 2015. PB Perkeni, Jakarta.

Sekhar, S., Vyas, N., Unnikrishnan, M., Rodrigues, G., and Mukhopadhyay, C., 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in diabetic foot ulcer: a pilot study. Ann. Med. Health Sci. Res. 4, 742–745. https://doi.org/10.4103/2141-9248.141541

Studer, D., Awai, A.M., Williams, N.H., Antoniou, G.E., Eardley-Harris, N., and Cundy, P.J., 2015. Selective fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a radiographic evaluation of risk factors for imbalance. J. Child. Orthop. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11832-015-0653-0

Wikansari, N.H., Hestiningsih, R., dan Raharjo, B., 2012. Pemeriksaan total isolate bakteri udara dan Staphylococcus aureus di ruang rawat inap Rumah Sakit X Kota Semarang. JKM 1, 384-492.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 116 time(s)
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia): 108 time(s)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.