KARAKTERISTIK FAKTOR RISIKO PASIEN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (CKD) YANG MENJALANI HEMODIALISA DI RS X MADIUN

Arianti Arianti, Anisa Rachmawati, Erlina Marfianti

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23917/biomedika.v12i1.9597

Abstract

ABSTRAK

Penderita cronic kidney disease (CKD) terus meningkat setiap tahunnya, bahkan di Indonesia lebih dari 200.000 kasus baru gagal ginjal stadium akhir. Faktor risiko seperti hipertensi, diabetes mellitus, penyakit kardiovaskular, glomerular, tubulointerstitial, ginjal polikistik, penggunaan obat/bahan kimia berpengaruh terhadap kejadian CKD. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik faktor risiko pasien CKD yang menjalani hemodialisa. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian non eksperimental dengan desain penelitian cross sectional. Data diperoleh melalui data sekunder periode Januari–Oktober 2016. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah dari 88 pasien yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi, terdapat 57 pasien (64,8%) laki-laki dan 31 pasien (35,2%)  perempuan, terdapat 1 pasien (1,1%) CKD pada kelompok usia 18-25 tahun, 26 pasien (29,5%) pada kelompok umur 26-45 tahun, 54 pasien (61,4%) pada kelompok umur 46-65 tahun, 7 pasien (8%) pada kelompok usia >65 tahun. Berdasarkan faktor risiko terjadinya CKD didapatkan hasil 81 pasien (92%) menderita hipertensi, 34 pasien (38,6%) dengan DM, 17 pasien (19,3%) dengan penyakit tubulointerstitial, 6 pasien (6,8%) dengan penyakit ginjal polikistik, 4 pasien (4,5 %) dengan penyakit kardiovaskular, tidak ada pasien (0%) dengan penyakit glomerular. Hipertensi dan diabetes mellitus merupakan dua faktor risiko tertinggi pasien CKD yang menjalani hemodialisa di RS X Madiun.

Kata Kunci: CKD, Faktor Risiko, Hemodialisa

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) continues to increase every year, even in Indonesia, more than 200,000 new cases of end-stage renal failure. There are several risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, glomerular, tubulointerstitial, kidney polikistik, use of drugs / chemicals affect the occurrence of chronic kidney disease. The study aims to determine the characteristics of the risk factors of CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. The study is a non-experimental, using cross sectional design. Data obtained through secondary data by looking at the medical record period from January to October, 2016. The results of this study are from 88 patients who met the inclusion criteria there are 57 patients (64.8%) were male and 31 patients (35,2%) were women, there are 1 patient (1,1%) in the age group 18-25 years, 26 patients (29,5%)  in the age group 26-45 years, 54 patients (61,4%)  in the age group 46-65 years, 7 patients (8%)  in the age group> 65 years. Based on the risk factors of CKD showed 81 patients (92%) had hypertension, 34 patients (38.6%) with DM, 17 patients (19.3%) with tubulointerstitial disease, 6 patients (6,8%) with polycystic kidney disease, 4 patients (4,5%) with cardiovascular disease, no patient (0%) with glomerular disease. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are the two highest risk factors for CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis in Madiun X Hospital.

Keywords: CKD, Risk Factors, Hemodialysis

References

Berns, J. S., 2019. UpToDate-Patient Education Polycystic Kidney Disease (Beyond the Basics). Available at: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/polycystic-kidney-disease-beyond-the-basics.

Febriana, L. 2015. Hubungan Antara Kondisi Komorbid dan Mortalitas Pada Pasien Gagal Ginjal Kronik yang Menjalani Hemodialisis di RSU Dokter Soedarso Pontianak, Jurnal Fakultas Kedokteran Untan. 3(1).

Goldberg, I. and Krause, I. 2016. The Role of Gender in Chronic Kidney Disease. Citation: EMJ, 1(2):58–64.

Greene, E., Oman, K. and Lefler, M. 2014. Energy Drink-Induced Acute Kidney Injury. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 48(10):1366–70.

Hervinda, S., Novadian, N. Tjekyan, R. M. S 2014. Prevalensi dan Faktor Risiko Penyakit Ginjal Kronik di RSUP Dr . Mohammad Hoesin Palembang Tahun 2012. Majalah Kedokteran Sriwijaya. 46(4):275–81.

Kazancioǧlu, R. 2013. Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease: An update. Kidney International Supplements. 3(4): 368-71.

Kemenkes R.I. 2017. Ginjal Kronis - Direktorat P2PTM. Available at: http://www.p2ptm.kemkes.go.id/kegiatan-p2ptm/subdit-penyakit-jantung-dan-pembuluh-darah/ginjal-kronis (Accessed: 28 January 2020).

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group. 2013. KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney International Supplements. 3:1-150.Ku, E., Lee, B.J., Wei, J., Weir, M.R. 2019. Hypertension in CKD: Core Curriculum 2019. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 74(1):120–31.

Lin, Y. C., Chang, Y.H., Yang, S.Y., Wu, K.D., Chu, T.S. 2018. Update of Pathophysiology and Management of Diabetic Kidney Disease. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 117(8):662–75.

Liu, M., Li, X.C., Lu, L., Cao, Y., Sun, R.R., Chen, S., Zhang, P.Y. 2014. Cardiovascular Disease and Its Relationship with Chronic Kidney Disease. European Review For Medical And Pharmacological Sciences.18(19): 2918–26.

Mallappallil, M., Friedman, E. A., Delano, B.G., McFarlane, S.I., Salifu, M.O. 2014. Chronic Kidney Disease In The Elderly: Evaluation And Management. Clinical Practice, 11(5): 525–35.

Nurjanah, A. 2012. Hubungan Antara Lama Hipertensi Dengan Angka Kejadian Gagal Ginjal Terminal di RSUD Dr. Moewardi Surakarta. Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta. Available at: http://eprints.ums.ac.id/23959/10/NASKAH_PUBLIKASI.pdf.

Perhimpunan Nefrologi Indonesia (Pernefri). 2014. 7th Report Of Indonesian Renal Registry. Available at: https://www.indonesianrenalregistry.org/data/INDONESIAN%20RENAL%20REGISTRY%202014.pdf

Tedla, F. M., Brar, A., Browne, R., Brown, C. 2011. Hypertension In Chronic Kidney Disease: Navigating The Evidence. International Journal of Hypertension. 2011.

Weinstein, J. R. and Anderson, S. 2010. The Aging Kidney: Physiological Changes. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, 17(4)302–7.

Zhe, M. and Hang, Z. 2017. Nephrolithiasis As A Risk Factor Of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis Of Cohort Studies With 4,770,691 Participants., Urolithiasis. 45(5): 441–8.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 196 time(s)
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia): 345 time(s)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.