Dynamic Land Resources Management at the Mount Kelud, Indonesia

Puspita Indra Wardhani, Junun Sartohadi, Sunarto Sunarto

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23917/forgeo.v31i1.3612


There is a contradictive situation between the theory that believes that high volcanic hazard areas should be for limited production zones and those areas that are intensively utilised for several production activities. This paper tries to discuss that contradictive situation from both the perspective of natural hazards and natural resources, therefore, the best options for the land utilisation pattern might be formulated at these high volcanic hazards areas. We conducted landscape analysis that covers volcanic morphology, volcanic materials, and both natural and artificial processes that modify the morphology and materials characteristics. The natural processes occurring in the high volcanic hazard might cover non-volcanic processes such as erosion and landslide. The artificial processes were usually considered as land utilisation activities by the local community. In such areas where both natural and artificial processes occurred, we conducted in-depth interviews to assess the community perception on thread and benefits of the last Kelud Eruption in February 2014. We evaluated the current land resources utilisation and portrayed the local adaptive land resource utilisation. There were three types of land resources available at the active volcano: space, natural scenery, and volcanic materials. The availability of these land resources was in a dynamic condition both in terms of quality and quantity. Immediately after the eruption, the natural scenery made the area attractive as a tourist destination. Following the high intensity of rainfall, the volcanic materials might be used as high-quality construction materials. The available space might be utilised for any purposes after the situation became relatively stable. The current space was mostly used for agricultural enterprises which accommodates the physical and socio-cultural characteristics of the active volcano environment.


Volcano;Land resources;Management

Full Text:



Act Ministry of Republic Indonesia No. 21 / PRT / M / 2007 on Spatial Planning Guidelines for Volcano Eruption and Earthquake.

Act of Republic Indonesia No. 26 of 2007 on Spatial Planning.

Arif, A.(2014). Pelajaran dari Kelud. http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2014/02/16/0916135/ Pelajaran.dari.Kelud. (Accessed January 16th, 2016).

Bachri, S., Stötter, J., Monreal, M., & Sartohadi, J.(2015). The calamity of eruptions, or an eruption of benefits? Mt. Bromo human–volcano system a case study of an open-risk perception. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science,15, pp. 277-290. doi: http://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-277-2015.

Bappenas. (2010). National Action Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction 2010-2012.

Becker, J.S., Saunders, W.S.A., Robertson, C.M., Leonard, G.S., & Johnston, D.M.(2010). A synthesis of challenges and opportunities for reducing volcanic risk through land use planning in New Zealand. The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, pp. 2010-1.

BNPB.(2014). Dampak Bencana terhadap Perekonomian Indonesia (Bagian 1). http://www.bnpb.go.id/berita/1954/dampak-bencana-terhadap-ekonomi-indonesia-bagian-1. (Accessed January 16th, 2016).

BNPB.(2014).Dampak Bencana terhadap Perekonomian Indonesia (Bagian 2). http://www.bnpb.go.id/berita/1955/dampak-bencana-terhadap-ekonomi-indonesia-bagian-2. (Accessed January 16th, 2016).

Bourdier, J.L., Pratomo, I., Thouret, JC., Boudon, G., & Vincent, P.(1997). Observations, Stratigraphy and Eruptive Processes of The 1990 Eruption of Kelut Volcano Indonesia”, Journal of Volcanonology dan Geothermal Research, 79, pp.181-203.

Brotopuspito, K, S., & Wahyudi. (2007) . Erupsi Gunungapi Kelud dan Nilai-B Gempabumi disekitarnya. Berkala MIPA, 17, pp. 47-56.

Bryant, R. L.(1998). Power, knowledge and political ecology in the third world: a review. Progress in Physical Geography, 22(1), 79-94. doi:10.1177/030913339802200104

Centers of Sabo.(2016). Balai Sabo: Pusat Litbang Sumberdaya Air. http://Saboresearchindonesia.blogspot.co.id/. (Accessed January 16th, 2016).

Dibyosaputro, S., Dipayana, G.A., Nugraha, H., Pratiwi, K., & Valeda, H.P.(2015). Lahar at Kali Konto after the 2014 Eruption of Kelud Volcano, East Java: Impacts and Risk. Forum Geografi, Vol. 29 (1) July 2015, pp. 59-72.

Doocy, S., Daniels, A., Dooling, S., & Gorokhovich, Y. (2013). The Human Impact of Volcanoes: a Historical Review of Events 1900-2009 and Systematic Literature Review. PLOS Currents Disasters (Edition 1), April 16th ,2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.dis.841859091a706efebf8a30f4ed7a1901.

Dowling, R., & Newsome, D.(2006). Geotourism. Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, London.

Erfurt-Cooper, P. (2010). Introduction, in : Erfurt-Cooper, P. & Cooper, M. (Eds.), Volcano and Geothermal Tourism : Sustainable geo-Resources for Leisure and Recreation, Earthscan, Washington DC., pp. 1-3.

Jeffery, J., Gertisser, R., Troll, V.R., Jolis, E. M., Dahre, B., Harris, C., Tindle, A.G., Preece, K.,O’Driscoll, B., Humaida, H., & Chadwick, J.P.(2013). The Pre-eruptive Magma Plumbing System of The 2007-2008 Dome-Forming Eruption of Kelud Volcano, East Java, Indonesia. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166(1), 275–308. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-013-0875-4.

Kelman, I. &Mather, T.A.(2008). Living with Volcanoes: The sustainable livelihoods approach for volcano-related opportunities. Science Direct, 172, pp.189–198. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2007.12.007.

Maritimo, F., Wardhani, P.I., & Wardhana, G.M.K.(2014). Potensi Lahar di Lereng Gunungapi Kelud Pasca-Erupsi 2014, in: Sartohadi, J. & Pratiwi, E.S. (Eds.). Pengelolaan Bencana Kegunungapian Kelud pada Periode Krisis Erupsi 2014, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta. pp. 52-76.

Marti, J. & Ernst, G.J.(2005). Volcanoes and The Enviroment, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Pratomo, I.(2006). Klasifikasi gunungapi aktif Indonesia, studi kasus dari beberapa letusan gunungapi dalam sejarah, Jurnal Geologi Indonesia, 4, pp. 209-227.

Presidential Decree of Republic Indonesia No. 32 in 1990 on the Management of Protected Areas.

Thouret, J.C., Abdurachman, K., Bourdier, J.L., Bronto, S.(1998). Origin, characteristics, and behaviour of lahars following the 1990 eruption of Kelud volcano, eastern Java (Indonesia). Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 59, No. 7, pp. 460-480. doi:10.1007/s004450050204

Tilling, R. I.(2005). Volcano Hazards, in: Ernst, G &Marti, J. (Eds.) Volcanoes and The Environment, Cambridge University Press, Amerika.

Tilling, R.I & Lipman, P.W.(1993). Lessons in Reducing Volcanic Risk, Nature,364, pp. 277-280.

Twigg, J.(2004). Good Practice Review No. 9 Disaster risk reduction: Mitigation and preparedness in development and emergency programming.

Wardhani, P.I. (2013). Mekanisme Bertahan Masyarakat Tengger di Probolinggo terhadap Erupsi Gunung Bromo Tahun 2010-2011 (Unpublished master thesis). Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.

Zaennudin, A. (2009). Prakiraan Bahaya Erupsi Gunung Kelud. Bulletin Vulkanologi dan Bencana Geologi, 4, pp.1-17.

Article Level Metrics


  • There are currently no refbacks.