Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Landslides in Java and the Triggering Factors

Danang Sri Hadmoko, Franck Lavigne, Junun Sartohadi, Christopher Gomez, D Daryono



Java Island, the most populated island of Indonesia, is prone to landslide disasters. Their occurrence and impact have increased mainly as the result of natural factors, aggravated by human imprint. This paper is intended to analyse: (1) the spatio-temporal variation of landslides in Java during short term and long-term periods, and (2) their causative factors such as rainfall, topography, geology, earthquakes, and land-use. The evaluation spatially and temporally of historical landslides and consequences were based on the landslide database covering the period of 1981 – 2007 in the GIS environment. Database showed that landslides distributed unevenly between West Java (67 %), Central Java (29 %) and East Java (4 %). Slope failures were most abundant on the very intensively weathered zone of old volcanic materials on slope angles of 30O – 40O. Rainfall threshold analysis showed that shallow landslides and deep-seated landslides were triggered by rainfall events of 300 – 600 mm and > 600 mm respectively of antecedent rainfall during 30 consecutive days, and many cases showed that the landslides were not always initiated by intense rainfall during the landslide day. Human interference plays an important role in landslide occurrence through land conversion from natural forest to dryland agriculture which was the host of most of landslides in Java. These results and methods can be used as valuable information on the spatio-temporal characteristics of landslides in Java and their relationship with causative factors, thereby providing a sound basis for landslide investigation in more detail.


landslides, spatio-temporal distribution, causative factors, Java, Indonesia.

Full Text:



Saputra, A, Sartohadi, J, Hadmoko, DS, Gomez, C (2016) Geospatial Assessment of Coseismic Landslides in Baturagung Area. Forum Geografi 29, 99–114.

Alaya, IA (2004) Hazard assessment of rainfall-induced landsliding in Mexico. Geomorphology. 22 p.

Brunsden D, Ibsen ML, Lee M, Moore R (1995) The validity of temporal archive records for geomorphological processes. Quaest Geogr 4:79–92 (special issue)

Crozier MJ (1999) Prediction of rainfall-triggered landslides : a test of the antecedent water status model. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 24, 825-833

Dai, FC, Lee, CF (2002) Landslide characteristics and slope instability modeling using GIS, Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Geomorphology 42: 213–228.

Devoli G, Morales A, Høeg K (2007) Historical landslides in Nicaragua—collection and analysis of data, Landslides 4:5–18

Gabet EJ, Burbank DW, Putkonen JK, Pratt-Sitaula BA, Ojha T (2004) Rainfall thresholds for landsliding in the Himalayas of Nepal. Geomorphology 63 : 131-143

Glade T (2003) Landslide occurrence as a response to land use change: a review of evidence from New Zealand, Catena 51: 297– 314

Guzzetti F, Ardizzone F, Cardinali M, Galli M, Reichenbach P, Rossi M (2008) Distribution of landslides in the Upper Tiber River Basin, Central Italy. Geomorphology 96 : 105 - 122

Hadmoko, DS (2006) Les mouvements de terrain dans les Monts Menoreh : déclenchement, dynamique, aléa, modélisation spatio-temporelle et risques associés, MSc. Thesis, Université Paris 1, Panthéon Sorbonne, France. 83 pp. (unpublised).

Hadmoko, D.S., Lavigne, F., Sartohadi, Winaryo (2010) Landslide hazard and risk assessment and their application in risk management and landuse planning in eastern flank of Menoreh Mountains, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Natural Hazards 54, pp 623–642.

Hadmoko, D.S., Lavigne, F. Samodra, G. (2017) Application of a semiquantitative and GIS-based statistical model to landslide susceptibility zonation in Kayangan Catchment, Java, Indonesia. Natural Hazards (article in press).

Iida T (1999) A stochastic hydro-geomorphological model for shallow landsliding due to rainstorm. Catena 34, 293–313.

Knapen A, Kitutu MG, Poesen J, Breugelmans W, Deckers J, Muwanga A (2006) Landslides in a densely populated county at the footslopes of Mount Elgon (Uganda): Characteristics and causal factors, Geomorphology 73 : 149–165

Lavigne F, Gunnell Y (2006) Recent land cover change and abrupt environmental impacts on Javan volcanoes, Indonesia. Regional Environmental Change: 6, 1-2, 86-100.

Paudel PP, Omura H, Kubota T, Inoue T (2007) Spatio-temporal patterns of historical shallow landslides in a volcanic area, Mt. Aso, Japan. Geomorphology 88 : 21–33

Petley DN, Heam GJ, Hart A, Rosser NJ, Dunning SA, Oven K, Mitchell WA (2007) Trends in landslide occurrence in Nepal. Nat Hazards 43:23–44 DOI 10.1007/s11069-006-9100-3

Rahardjo H, Li XW, Toll DG, Leong EC (2001) The effect of antecedent rainfall on slope stability. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 19: 371-399

Samia, J., Temme, A., Bregt, A., Wallinga J., Guzzetti F., Ardizzone F., Rossi M., (2017) Do landslides follow landslides? Insights in path dependency from a multi-temporal landslide inventory. Landslide 14: 547 - 558

Schuster RL, Highland LM (2001) Socioeconomic and environmental impacts of landslides in the western hemisphere. USGS Open-File Report, 01–276

Southeast Asia Association of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (SEASEE).1985. Series on Seismology. Arnold (ed.)Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Spiker EC, Gori PL (2003) Partnerships for reducing landslide risk: assessment of the national landslide hazards mitigation strategy. The National Academy of Sciences Press, Washington,DC

Van Asch TWJ, Buma J, Van Beek LPH (1999) A view on some hydrological triggering systems in landslides Geomorphology 30: 25–32

Van Beek LPH (2002) The effect of land use and climatic change on slope stability in the Alcoy region (Spain), Thesis, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands, 363 pp.

Zhou CH, Lee CF, Li J, Xu ZW (2002) On the spatial relationship between landslides and causative factors on Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Geomorphology 43 : 197– 207

Zhou G, Esaki T, Mitani Y, Xie M, and Mori J (2003) Spatial probabilistic modeling of slope failure using an integrated GIS Monte Carlo simulation approach. International Journal of Engineering Geology 68: 373–386.

Article Level Metrics


  • There are currently no refbacks.