The Influence of Madden–Julian Oscillation on Local-Scale Phenomena over Indonesia during the Western North Pacific and Australian Monsoon Phases

Ida Pramuwardani, Hartono Hartono, Sunarto Sunarto, Ardhasena Sopaheluwakan



In this study, geographical Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) propagation in association with precipitation rate was obtained using lag correlation applied to empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis modes 1 and 2 of filtered MJO data. The precipitation rate over Indonesia was provided at day -10 through day +10 in five-day steps during the December, January, and February (DJF) Western North Pacific (WNP) and July, August and September (JAS) Australian (AU) monsoon phases. Connection with local atmospheric factors was then sought through comparison of local precipitation, represented by 3-hourly precipitation, and dynamical processes, represented by multilevel wind, at seven locations across Indonesia. The results show a global MJO contribution toward local-scale phenomena in Tangerang, Surabaya, and Makassar during the DJF-WNP monsoon phase and in Padang, Medan, Surabaya, Makassar, and Kupang during the JAS-AU monsoon phase. Meanwhile, a lack of MJO contribution toward local factors is presumably due to other local through wider atmospheric-scale phenomena which are suspected to have more influence, particularly in Medan, Padang, Manado, and Kupang during the DJF-WNP monsoon phase, and in Manado and Tangerang during the JAS-AU monsoon phase. This research uses a dataset of 15-year series of daily and three-hourly Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) (3B42 V7 derived) measurements, 850 hPa zonal wind measurements from 30-year reanalysis data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset, and a 15-year series of 12-hourly observational soundings data from seven stations of the Indonesian Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG).


MJO; local factor; precipitation rate; multi-level wind

Full Text:



Aldrian, E., & D. Susanto, 2003: Identification of three Dominant Rainfall Regions within Indonesia and their Relationship to Sea Surface Temperature. Int. J. Climatol, 23, 1435-1452

Cheng T. C., M. C. Yen, & S. P. Weng, 2000: Interaction between the Summer Monsoons in East Asia and the South China Sea: Intraseasonal Monsoon Modes. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 1373-1392

He S., N. F. Goodkin, ,2 , N. Kurita , X. Wang, & C. M. Rubin, 2018: Stable Isotopes of Precipitation During Tropical Sumatra Squalls in Singapore. J.Geo. Research, 3812-3829, doi: 10.1002/2017JD027829

Hidayat, R., & S. Kizu, 2010: Influence of the Madden–Julian Oscillation on Indonesian rainfall variability in austral summer. Int. J. Climatol, 30, 1816-1825

Huffman G.J., 2006: The TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis (TMPA): quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales. J. Hydrometeo., 8, 38–55.

Khrisnamurti, T.N., & D. Subrahmanyam, 1982: The 30-50 Day Mode at 850 mb During MONEX. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 2088-2095

Kiladis, G., K. Straub, & P. Haertel, 2005: Zonal and Vertical Structure of the Madden–Julian Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2790-2809.

Kiladis, G., M. Wheeler, P. Haertel, K. Straub, & P. Roundy: 2009. Convectively coupled equatorial waves. Rev. Geophys. 47: RG2003

Kim, H., D. Kim, F. Vitart, V.E. Toma, J. Kug, and P.J. Webster, 2016: MJO Propagation across the Maritime Continent in the ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System. J. Climate, 29, 3973–3988,

Lawrence D.M., & P.J. Webster, 2002: The Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation: Relationship between Northward and Eastward Movement of Convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 1593-1606

Liebmann, B. & H.H. Hendon, 1990: Synoptic-scale disturbances near the equator. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1463-1479.

Lo, J.C., & T. Orton, 2016: The general features of tropical Sumatra Squalls. Weather, 27, 175-178

Lubis S.W., & C. Jacobi, 2014, The modulating influence of convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEWs) on the variability of tropical precipitation. Int. J. Climatol, 35, 1465–1483

Madden, R. A., & P. R. Julian, 1972: Description of global-scale circullation cells in the tropical with 40-50 day period. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1109-1123

Masunaga H. 2007: Seasonality and Regionality of the Madden–Julian Oscillation, Kelvin Wave, and Equatorial Rossby Wave. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 4400-4416

NASDA, 2001: TRMM data users handbook. NASDA, pp.226

Peatman S. C., A. J. Matthews, & D. P. Stevens, 2014: Propagation of the Madden–Julian Oscillation through the Maritime Continent and scale interaction with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 140, 814–825

Peatman, S. C., A. J. Matthews, & D. P. Stevens, 2015: Propagation of the Madden–Julian Oscillation and scale interaction with the diurnal cycle in a high-resolution GCM. Clim Dyn, 45, 2901–2918

Permana D.D., A. E. Sakya, E. E. Makmur, A. S. Handayani, W. Hanggoro, & G. Setyadi, 2016: Identification of MJO Signal on Various Elevation Station Rainfall in Southern Papua , Indonesia. AGU Fall Meeting 2016, 1-2, doi: 10.1029/2005GL023595.3.

Ramage C. S., 1968: Role of Tropical “Maritime Continent” in the Atmospheric Circulation. Monthly Weather Rev., 96, 365-370

Rui H., & B. Wang, 1990: Development Characteristics and Dynamic Structure of Tropical Intraseasonal Convection Anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 47-3, 357-379

Vincent C. L., & T. P. Lane, 2016: Evolution of the Diurnal Precipitation Cycle with the Passage of a Madden–Julian Oscillation Event through the Maritime Continent. Monthly Weather Rev., 144, 1983-2004

Wang,B., &, Z. Fan, 1999: Choice of South Asian Summer Monsoon Indices. B. American Metor. Soc., 80, 629-638

Wang, B., Z. Wu, J. Li, J. Liu, C. Chang, Y. Ding, and G. Wu, 2008: How to Measure the Strength of the East Asian Summer Monsoon. J. Climate, 21, 4449–4463,

Wang, B., J. Liu, H.J. Kim, P.J. Webster, & S.Y. Yim, 2012: Recent change of the global monsoon precipitation (1979–2008). Clim. Dyn., 39:1123–1135

Wheeler, M. C., & G. N. Kiladis, 1999: Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber-frequency domain. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 374–399.

Wheeler, M. C., & H. H. Hendon, 2004: An All-Season Real-Time Multivariate MJO Index: Development of an Index for Monitoring and Prediction. Monthly Weather Rev., 12, 1917-1932

Wheeler, M. C., & J. L. McBride, 2005: Australian-Indonesian monsoon, in intraseasonal variability in the atmosphere-ocean climate system, edited by W. K. M. Lau and D. E. Waliser, pp. 125–173.

Winarso P.A., 2016: Study of the Indonesia Wind Power Energy using Secondary Data. J J Climatol Weather Forecasting, 4-3, 1-4. doi: 10.4172/2332-2594.1000182

Wu H. C., & H.H. Hsu, 2009: Topographic Influence on the MJO in the Maritime Continent. J. Climate, 22, 5433-5448

Yim, S.Y., B. Wang, J. Liu, & Z. Wu, 2013: A comparison of regional monsoon variability using monsoon indices. Clim. Dyn., 43, 1423-1437

Yoneyama, K., C. Zhang, & C. N. Long, 2013: Tracking Pulses of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. Bul of America Met. Soc., 94, 1872-1891

Zhang C., & M. Dong, 2004: Seasonality in the Madden–Julian Oscillation. J.Climatol, 17, 3169-3180

Zhang C., & J. Ling, 2017: Barrier Effect of the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent on the MJO: Perspectives from Tracking MJO Precipitation. J. Climatol, 30, 3439-3459

Zhao C., Li T., & Zhou T., 2013: Precursor signals and processes associated with MJO initiation over the tropical Indian Ocean. J.Climate, 26, 291-307

Article Level Metrics


  • There are currently no refbacks.