Spatial Analysis and Visualization of Geographic Access to Food in the Capital Area of Bulungan Regency, North Kalimantan Province

Bowo Susilo, Rika Harini



Recently, food security becomes a priority for many governments particularly in developing countries. Food security has four dimensions i.e. availability, accessibility, stability, and utilization. This study examined food accessibility in term of geographic access i.e. the contribution of the geographic environment to food choices and consumption. The study located in Tanjung Selor Subdistrict, the capital region of Bulungan Regency as well as North Kalimantan Province. Geographic access to food was analyzed based on spatial distribution of food stores, settlement, and availability of transportation network. Spatial analysis, i.e. coverage, density, and network analysis, as well as the spatial visualization were performed using tools available in GIS software. This study revealed some circumstance related to geographical access to food in the study area. Geographical access to food for non-motorized people is limited. Non-motorized people have to walk more than 1 km to the nearest food store. Access to food for motorized people is somewhat different. Their geographical access, in general, were categorized as easy to moderate. This situation indicates that the availability of public transport or vehicle ownership is necessary to improve access to food.


Food Security; Geographic Access; Spatial Analysis; Visualization

Full Text:



BPS. (2017). Kecamatan Tanjung Selor Dalam Angka 2017. Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Bulungan.

Cen, X. (2017). Take the edge off: A hybrid geographic food access measure, Applied Geography, 87, 149-159.

Choi, Y., and Suzuki, T. (2013). Food deserts, activity patterns, & social exclusion: The case of Tokyo, Japan. Applied Geography, 43, 87-98.

Eckert, J., and Shetty, S. (2011) Food systems, planning and quantifying access: Using GIS to plan for food retail. Applied Geography, 31, 1216-1223.

Fotheringham, A.S. and Rogerson, P.A. (Eds) (2009). The SAGE Handbook of Spatial Analysis. SAGE Publications Ltd, London.

FAO. (2013). Food Security Statistics, FAO Statistics Division. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Goodchild, M. F. (2007).Citizens as sensors: The world of volunteered geography. GeoJournal, 69(4), 211–221.

Harini, R., Handayani, H.N., and Ramdani, F.R. (2018). Food security assessment in the coastal area of Demak Regency. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 148:012015. doi :10.1088/1755-1315/148/1/012015.

Jestico, B., Nelson, T. and Winters, M. (2016). Mapping ridership using crowdsourced cycling data. Journal of Transport Geography, 52, 90–97.

Johnson, B.A., Iizuka, K., Bragais, M.A., Endo, I. and Macandog, D.B.M. (2017). Employing crowdsourced geographic data and multi-temporal/multi-sensor satellite imagery to monitor land cover change: A case study in an urbanizing region of the Philippines. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems,64, 184–193.

Krizan, F., Bilkova, K., Kita, P., and Hornak, M. (2015) Potential food deserts and food oases in a post-communist city: Access, quality, variability and price of food in Bratislava-Petrzalka. Applied Geography, 62, 8-18.

Le, Q., Nguyen, H.B., Terry, D.R., Dieters, S., Auckland. S. and Long, G. (2015). Quantifying and visualizing access to healthy food in a rural area of Australia: A spatial analysis, Food Security, 7,1017–1029.

Leroy, J.L., Ruel, M., Frongillo, E.A., Harris, J., and Ballard, T.J. (2015). Measuring the Food Access Dimension of Food Security: A Critical Review and Mapping of Indicators, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 36(2), 167-195.

Susilo, B. (2016). Map Analysis and Spatial Statistic: Assessment of Spatial Variability of Agriculture Land Conversion at Urban Fringe Area of Yogyakarta. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 47:012001. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/47/1/012001.

Widiyanto, D. (2018) An Exploration of Food Insecurity, Poverty, Livelihood and Local Food Potentials in Kulon Progo Regency, Indonesia. Forum Geografi, 32(1), 64-87.

Yeager, C.D. and Gatrell, J.D. (2014). Rural food accessibility: An analysis of travel impedance and the risk of potential grocery closures. Applied Geography, 53, 1-10.

Article Level Metrics


  • There are currently no refbacks.