Kapasitas Pengasuhan Orangtua dan Faktor-Faktor Pemungkinnya Pada Keluarga Miskin Perkotaan

Pinkan Margaretha Indira

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23917/indigenous.v2i1.4433

Abstract

Abstraksi. Anak keluarga miskin perkotaan terlanggar pemenuhan haknya karena cenderung putus sekolah, terlibat kriminalitas, bermasa depan suram, mengulang siklus kemiskinan orangtua (Suyanto, 2013a). Peningkatan kapasitas pengasuhan orangtua mengurangi dampak negatif kemiskinan pada anak. Penelitian bertujuan memotret kapasitas orangtua dan faktor-faktor pemungkinnya. Digunakan pendekatan kualitatif (wawancara, pengamatan dan time-use diary). Partisipan diperoleh melalui case specific sampling. Data diolah dengan initial dan pattern coding. Kredibilitas data menggunakan method triangulation. Ditemukan partisipan masih memiliki sumber daya dan kesempatan untuk menjalankan fungsi pengasuhan bagi anak pada taraf minimal, tetapi penggunaannya belum optimal. Kecukupan gizi anak belum menjadi prioritas. Potensi bahaya fisik dan sosial disadari, tetapi baru dilakukan antisipasi untuk bahaya fisik. Kedekatan emosional pada anak cenderung memanjakan, belum diimbangi dengan disiplin konsisten, pendidikan akhlak diserahkan pada institusi agama. Sekolah adalah hal penting, tetapi orangtua terkendala mendampingi anak belajar. Ada dukungan sosial keluarga besar dan tetangga dalam membesarkan anak. Dibahas juga saran meningkatkan kapasitas pengasuhan orangtua.

 

Kata kunci: faktor-faktor pemungkin, kapasitas pengasuhan orangtua, keluarga miskin perkotaan

References

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.50, hal 179-211.

Armstrong, M.I., Birnie-Lefcovitch, S., & Ungar, M.T. (2005). Pathways between social support, family well being, quality of parenting, and child resilience: what we know. Journal of Child and Family Studies. Vol. 14. No. 2. Hal 269-281.

Badan Pusat Statistik DKI Jakarta. (2015). Tingkat kemiskinan di dki jakarta maret 2015. Diunduh pada 10 November 2015 dari http://www.jakarta.go.id/v2/news/2015/09/tingkat-kemiskinan-di-dki-jakarta-maret-2015#.VlLmeNIrLMx

Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional. (2015). Laporan pencapaian tujuan milenium di indonesia 2014. Diunduh pada 10 November 2015 dari http://sekretariatmdgs.or.id/?p=1434

Berg, B. L. (2007). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (6th ed.). Boston, M.A: Pearson

Chang, M., Park, B., Singh, K. & Sung, Y.y. (2009). Parental involvement, parenting behaviors, and children’s cognitive development in low-income and minority families. Journal of research in childhood education. Vol. 23. No. 3. Hal 309-324.

Desforges, C., & Abouchaar, A. (2003). The impact of parental involvement, parental support and family education on pupil achievements and adjustment: a literature review. Research Report.

Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology review. Vol. 13, No. 1. hal. 1-22.

Fantuzzo, J., McWayne, C., & Perry, M.A., (2004). Multiple dimensions of family involvement and their relations to behavioral and learning competencies for urban, low-income children. School Psychology Review, Vol. 33. No. 4. hal 467-480.

Grayson, N.E., (2004). The role of parental involvement in the amelioration of the effects of low sosioeconomic status on academic achievement. Dessertation: Proquest UMI.

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V. & Sandler, H.M., (1995). Parental involvement in children’s education: why does it make a difference?. Teachers College Record. Vol. 97. No. 2.

Hung, A., J. Yoong and E. Brown (2012), “Empowering women through financial awareness and education”, OECD Working Papers on Finance, Insurance and Private Pensions, No. 14, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k9d5v6kh56g-en

Kloos, B., Hill, J., Thomas, E., Wandersman, A., Elias, M., & Dalton, J. (2012) Community psychology, linking individuals and communities. USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Magnuson, K. & Votruba-Drzal, E. (2009). Enduring influences of childhood poverty. Focus. Vol. 26. No. 2.

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Poerwandari (2013). Pendekatan kualitatif untuk penelitian perilaku manusia. Jakarta: LPSP3 UI.

Rogers, M.A., Theule, J., Ryan, B.A., Adams, G. R., &

Keating, L. (2009). Parental involvement and children school achievement. Canadian Journal of School Psychology.Vol. 24. No. 1. hal 34-57.

Saldana, J. (2013). The coding manual for qualitative researcher. London: Sage.

Sen A. (2003) Development as capability expansion. In: Fukuda-Parr S, et al Readings in Human Development. Readings in Human Development. New Delhi and New York: Oxford University Press

Sophia, M. (2007). Hubungan persepsi anak tentang mekanisme keterlibatan orangtua dalam pendidikan dengan self efficacy akademis. Skripsi: Unika Atma Jaya.

Stamboel, K.A. (2012). Panggilan keberpihakan: Strategi mengakhiri kemiskinan di indonesia. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama

Suryadarma, D. & Suryahadi, A. (2013). The contrasting role of ability and poverty on education attainment: evidence from indonesia. Working Paper. Indonesia: SMERU.

Suyanto, B. (2013a). Perlindungan sosial bagi anak-anak miskin di perkotaan. Jakarta: Child Poverty and Social Protection Conference

Suyanto, B. (2013b). Anatomi kemiskinan dan strategi penanganannya. Malang: In-TRANS Publishing.

Tubbs, C.Y., Roy, K.M., & Burton, L.M. (2005). Family

ties: Constructing family time in low income families. Family Process, 44(1), 397-410

Ward, H., Brown, R., & Hyde-Dryden, G. (2014). Assessing parental capacity to change when children are on the edge of care: an overview of current research evidence. Research Report. UK: Department of Education.

White, A. (2005). Assessment of parenting capacity. NSW: Centre for Parenting and Research.

Yoder, J.R. & Lopez, A. (2013). Parent’s perception of involvement in children’s education: findings from a qualitative study of public housing residents. Children Adolescence Social Work Journal. Vol. 30. Hal 415-433. DOI: 10.1007/s10560-013-0298-0.

Article Level Metrics

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.