Skrining Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol 70% Sepuluh Daun Tanaman Terhadap Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Nurul Qolbi, Ratna Yuliani



Klebsiella pneumoniae causes several diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease and community pneumonia. The antibiotics used for treating the infectious diseases cause several side effects. Therefore, alternative medicines which have minimal side effects are needed. This research aimed to investigate antibacterial activity of ten ethanolic extract of leaves against K. pneumoniae, identify compounds and active compounds in extract which has the highest antibacterial activity. Compounds in leaves were extracted using 70% ethanol with maceration method. The disk diffusion method was used for screening antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae. The identification of group of compounds in extract with the largest inhibitory zone diameter was done using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and bioautographic test was performed to determine the active compounds. The results of antibacterial activity screening tests showed that all extracts have antibacterial activity except bamboo leaf extract. Breadfruit extract (Artocarpus altilis) has the highest antibacterial activity with diameter of inhibition zone of 18,33 ± 5,57 mm. Breadfruit extract contains tannin, polyphenol, alkaloid, terpenoid, saponin, and the active antibacterial compounds were terpenoid and saponin.


antibacteria; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Artocarpus altilis; bioautography

Full Text:



Al-Abd N.M., Mohammed Nor Z., Mansor M., Azhar F., Hasan, M.S. and Kassim M., 2015, Antioxidant Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Characterization of Melaleuca cajuputi Extract, Journal of BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine,15 (1), 385.

America Lung Assosiation, 2015, Pneumonia, Terdapat di resources/pneumonia-fact-sheet.html [Diakses pada 14 Oktober 2017]

Bauer A.W., Kirby W.M., Sherris J.C., Turck M., 1966, Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing By a Standardized Single Disk Method, Am J Clin Pathol, 45 (4), 493-6.

Buhian W.P.C., Rubio R.O., Valle D.L. and Puzon J.J.M., 2016, Bioactive Metabolite Profiles and Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extracts From Muntingia calabura L. Leaves and Stems, Article in Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 6 (8), 682-685.

Cowan M.M., 1999, Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12, 564-582.

Das S. C., Sultana S., Roy S. and Hasan, S.S., 2011, Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit parts of the plant Averrhoa Bilimbi (Oxalidaceae), American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 531–536.

Elfidasari D., Noriko, Anita M., Feroza A., Fauziah S.C., 2014, Deteksi Bakteri Klebsiella pneumonia pada Beberapa Jenis Rokok Konsumsi Masyarakat, Jurnal Al-Azhar Indonesia Seri Sains dan Teknologi, 2 (1), 41-47.

Ganiswarna S., 1995, Farmakologi dan Terapi, Edisi 4, Penerbit UI, Jakarta.

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstruktive Lung Disease, 2015, Global Strategy for The Diagnosis, Managemant, and Prevention of Chronic Pulmonary Disease

Gowri S.S. and Vasantha K., 2010, Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Syzygium cumini L. (Myrtaceae) Leaves Extracts, International Journal of PharmTech Research, 2 (2), 1569-1573.

Heyne K., 1987, Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia, Jilid III, Badan Litbang Kehutanan, Jakarta.

Markham K.R., 1988, Cara Mengidentifikasi Flavonoid, diterjemahkan Kosasih Padmawinata, penerbit, ITB, Bandung.

Mbaeyi-Nwaoha I. E., and Onwuka C. P., 2014, Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties and Pytochemical Composition of Artocarpus altilis Leaves Using Ethanol, n-Heksan, and Water, African Journal of Microbiology Research, 8 (37), 3409-3421.

Nansy E., Harwoko Pramono S., Nugroho A.E., 2015, Total flvonoid content and in vivo hypotensive effect of chloroform insolublefraction of Centella asiatica leaf extract, International Food Research Journal, 22 (5), 2119-2125.

Nethaji R., Thooyavan G., Nilla M. and Ashok K., 2015, Phytochemical Profiling, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extract In Rambutan Fruit (Nephelium Lappacium) Epicarp Against The Human Pathogens, International Journal of Current Innovation Research, 1 (9), 201-206.

Nuria M.C., Faizatun A. dan Sumantri, 2009, Uji Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol Daun Jarak Pagar (Jatropha cuircas L.) terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, dan Salmonella typhi ATCC 1408, Jurnal Ilmu – ilmu Pertanian, 5, 26-37.

Nuryanti A., Yulinah E. and Firdianti I., 2014, Activity of Several Plant Extract Agains Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Microbes, International of Seminar on Natural Product Medicines, Procedia Chemistry, 13, 164-169.

Ogundare A. and Oladejo B., 2014, Antibacterial Activities of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Persea americana, American Journal of Ethnomedicine, 1 (1), 064-071.

Podschun R. and Ullman U., 1998, Klebsiella spp. as Nocosomial Pathogens, Epidemiology, Taxonomy, Typing Methods, and Pathogenicity Factors, Journal of American Society for Microbiology, 11, 589-603.

Raman V., Sudhahar D., Anandarajagopal K., 2012, Preliminary phytochemical investigation and screening of antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Artocarpus altilis, Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences, 1, 104-197.

Riskesdas, 2013, Riset Kesehatan Dasar, Badan Penelitian Kesehatan Kementrian Kesehatan RI Tahun 2013, Jakarta.

Saifudin A., 2014, Senyawa Alam Metabolit Sekunder (Teori Konsep dan Teknik Pemurnian), Deepublish, Yogyakarta.

Shaik G., Sujatha N. and Mehar S.K., 2014, Medicinal plants as Source of Antibacterial Agent to Counter Klebsiella pneumoniae, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutial Science, 4 (1), 135-147.

Sonita A. and Masri M., 2014, Artikel Penelitian Pola Resistensi Bakteri pada Sputum Pasien PPOK Terhadap Beberapa Antibiotika di Laboraturium Mikrobiogi RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Periode 2010-2012, Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas, 3 (3), 354-357.

Ukoha P.O., Cemaluk E.A.C., Nnamdi O.L. and Madus E.P., 2011, Tannins and Other Phytochemical of the Samanaeasaman Pods and Their Antimicrobial Activities, African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 5 (8), 237-244.

Volk W.A. dan Wheeler M.F., 1993, Mikrobiologi Dasar, Erlangga, Jakarta.

Wagner H. and Bladt S., 1996, Plant Drugs Analysis: A Thin LayerChromatography Atlas, 2nd ed., Germany, Springer.

Wasnik D.D. and Tumane P.M., 2014, Antibacterial Activity of Bambusa bambose L. against Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) Bacteria Isolated from Clinical Specimen, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 25 (1), 215-218.

WHO, 2011, World Health Organization (WHO), Burden of COPD cit. Sonita A. and Masri M., 2014, Artikel Penelitian Pola Resistensi Bakteri pada Sputum Pasien PPOK Terhadap Beberapa Antibiotika di Laboraturium Mikrobiogi RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Periode 2010-2012, Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas, 3 (3), 354-357.

Wisitsak P., Nimkamnerd J., Thitipramote N., Saewan T., Chaiwut P. and Pintathong P., 2012, Comparison The Bioactive Compounds And Their Activities Between Longan And Litchi Seeds Extracts, Journal of 1st Mae Fah Luang University International Conference.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 394 time(s)
PDF: 529 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.