EPISTEMOLOGI POLITIK ISLAM TENTANG WEWENANG DAN KEKUASAAN

Muhammad Azhar

Abstract

The concept of authority and dominance bore political intrigues among Muslim
community throughout the history. The two concepts bore creative tense between Islamic
politics that had Makkiyah characteristics that was myth-theological and Maddaniyah one
that was rational. After the prophet and the expansion of Islam, the Islamic dominance
tended to be tyrannical. The application of the authority and dominance bore Islamic
government style that was repressive ((qawãn)n siyãsiyyah) andrational (siyãsah ‘aqliyyah)
also the government stylethat had religious characteristics or caliphate (siyãsah diniyyah).
WhileAsy-Syãtibi focused more on political dimension that had orientation on maqãþid
asy-syari’ah and maslahah ‘ãmmah aspects. The next step emerged various interpretations
about imamah, wilayah, khilafah, ummah, syura, amir concepts up to bai’ah and jihad. In
psychological-sociological manner, the sacred dominance became unhindered.
Key words: Caliphate, Imamah, Amir, Wilayatul Faqih, Syuradan Nation State

Konsep wewenang dan kekuasaan melahirkan intrik politik di kalangan umat
sepanjang sejarah. Dua konsep tersebut melahirkan ketegangan kreatif antara politik
Islam yang bercorakMakkiyyah yang mitis-teologis dan Madaniyyah yang rasionalistik.
Pasca era Nabi kekuasan Islamcenderung tiranik setelah adanya perluasan kekuasaan
Islam.Aplikasi wewenang dan kekuasaan melahirkan style pemerintahan Islam yang
represif (qawãn)n siyãsiyyah), rasional (siyãsah ‘aqliyyah) dan yang bercorak agamis
atau khilafah (siyãsah diniyyah).Sedangkan Asy-Syãtibi) lebih memfokuskan pada
dimensi politik yang lebih berorientasi pada aspek maqãþid asy-syari’ah dan maslahah
‘ãmmah.Pada tahap selanjutnya muncul berbagai interpretasi tentang konsep-konsep:
imamah, wilayah, khilafah, ummah, syura, amir, hingga bai’ah dan jihad. Secara
psikologis-sosiologis, sakralitas kekuasaan menjadi tak terhindarkan
Kata Kunci: Khilafah, Imamah, Amir, Wilayatul Faqih, Syura dan Nation State

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References

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