Economic Token Techniques as an Effort to Increase the Independence of Children Aged 4-5 Years

Betty Murniyati(1*), Junita Dwi Wardhani(2)

(1) Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
(2) Universitas muhammadiyah Surakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Early childhood is a very appropriate age to practice independence, because this is a very important aspect for every early childhood. In training aspects of child independence must be carried out regularly, continuously and continuously and in accordance with the age of the child. Providing stimulation and habituation regularly and directed , will make the child more independent faster . The behavior modification method with economic tokens is one of the methods that has been researched and proven to be effective to be applied to increase the independence of early childhood . This study aims to increase the independence of group A kindergarten children in Tamansari 02 Village, Kerjo District, Karanganyar Regency by using economic tokens . The research method used was a quasi-experimental design with one group pre-test post-test. The data collection technique uses a check list instrument totaling 16 items. The subjects of this study amounted to 7 child . The data analysis that the researcher used was the paired sample t test method . From the results of the study it was found that there was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test independence scores after the child was given treatment p <0.05 (p = 0.000). From these data it has been proven that the application of economic tokens is effective and can increase the independence of group A kindergarten children in Tamansari 02 Village, Kerjo District, Karanganyar Regency.


independence, token economy , early childhood

Full Text:



Agusta, AG (2017a). Application of economic tokens to increase the independence of pre-school children. Thesis , 1–54.

Agusta, AG (2017b). Application of economic tokens to increase the independence of pre-school children . University of Muhammadiyah Malang.

Aulia, D., Yuliati, N., Weyara, S., & Saputri, D. (2022). The effect of applying token economy techniques to the level of student discipline . 7 (1), 104–110.

Chotim, M., Dewi, NK, Wardani, SY, & Christiana, R. (2016). Application of Economic Token Techniques to Increase the Independence of Kindergarten Kartika IV-21 Madiun. Counsellia: Journal of Guidance and Counseling , 3 (2).

Doll, C., McLaughlin, TF, & Barretto, A. (2013). The token economy: A recent review and evaluation . International Journal of basic and applied science, 2(1).

Komala, K. (2015). Get to know and develop early childhood independence through the parenting style of parents and teachers. Tunas Siliwangi: Journal of PAUD STKIP Siliwangi Bandung Teacher Education Study Program , 1 (1), 31–45.

Nadar, W., Maharani, T., & Shartika, S. (2019). Application of the Economic Token Habituation Method to Improve Early Childhood Discipline. Instructional , 1 (1), 56–65.

Nasution, RA (2017). Cultivating Discipline and Independence in Early Childhood in the Maria Montessori Method. Journal of Raudhah , 5 (2).

Prima, E., & Lestari, PI (2018). The Improvement of The Discipline for Early Childhood Through Token Economy Technique. Journal of Obsession: Journal of Early Childhood Education , 2 (2), 247–254.

Rita Nofianti, MP, Ria Astuti, MP, Kafkaylea, A., & Premium, C. (2021). FUNDAMENTALS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION . EDU PUBLISHER.

Sa'diyah, R. (2017). The importance of training children's independence. Coordinates: Journal of Islamic Inter-Higher Education Communication , 16 (1), 31–46.

Simatupang, ND, Widayati, S., Adhe, KR, & Shobah, AN (2021). Cultivating Independence in Early Childhood in Schools. Journal of Integrative Holistic Early Childhood (AUDHI) , 3 (2), 52.

Sugiyono. (2014). Quantitative, Qualitative and Combination Research Methods (Mixed Methods) . Bandung: Alphabet.

Susanto, A. (2021). Early Childhood Education: Concepts and Theories . Script Earth.

Zahroh, RS (2021). Implementation of Democratic Parenting Patterns in Forming Early Childhood Independence. IAIN Ponorogo Early Childhood Islamic Education Workshop "Development of Early Childhood Potential" in 2021. , 63–75.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 183 time(s)
PDF: 142 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.