Geographical Weighted Regression of Risk Factor of Stunting in Malang Regency, Indonesia

Adipandang Yudono, Joko Purnomo, Ratnaningsih Damayanti



Stunting has become a global concern. The incidence of stunting in the world contributes to 15% of under-five mortality, with 55 million children losing their health, and it is estimated to reduce the country's GDP level by up to 7%. In Indonesia, the incidence of stunting has become one of the main health problems that need to be solved immediately. Malang Regency is one of the districts in East Java Province that has received the spotlight regarding this problem. This research examined the risk factors of stunting in Malang Regency through Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). GWR was carried out to calculate the correlation between predetermined demographic, health, and economic variables, which were assumed to influence risk factors of stunting. GWR allocation and model examinations are important in understanding risk factors of stunting in the study of disease transmission in the investigation zone. Based on GWR analysis, the research shows that only four (4) sub-variables were significant: the number of poor people, level of education, number of health facilities, and access to health facilities. We also found that Lawang, Gondanglegi, and Turen districts have high-risk areas to stunting. Therefore, within this study that correlates to government policy to decrease or eliminate stunting incidents, districts belonging to the high-risk class should be prioritized or concerned. Moreover, based on LISA, some districts are affected by the risk factors of stunting from the surrounding districts with higher stunting potential value such as Gondanglegi and Pagelaran Districts.


Geographical Weighted Regression

Full Text:



Alam, F. K., Y. Widyaningsih, and S. Nurrohmah. (2021). “Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression Modeling on Stunting Cases in Indonesia.” In Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing, 012085.

Almasi, A., Zangeneh, A., Saeidi, S., Rahimi Naderi, S., Choobtashani, M., Saeidi, F., ... & Ziapour, A. (2019). Study of the Spatial Pattern of Malnutrition (Stunting, Wasting and Overweight) in Countries in the World Using Geographic Information System. International Journal of Pediatrics, 7(10), 10269-10281.

Anselin, L., (1988), Spatial Econometrics: Methods and Models. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Bhutta, Z. A., J. K. Das, A. Rizvi, M. F. Gaffey, N. Walker, S. Horton, P. Webb, A. Lartey, R. E. Black, G., (2013), Lancet Nutrition Interventions Review, Maternal and G. Child Nutrition Study."Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost?" Lancet 382(9890): 452-477.

Drapper, N. R., dan Smith, H., (1992), Applied Regression Analysis 3rd Edition, Wiley & Sons, Canada

Fadmi, F. R., Mulyani, S., & Buton, L. D. (2018). Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) Approach in the Modeling of Malnutrition and the Influencing Factors in Muna Regency. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 9(6), 351-356.

Fanzo,J,.et al, (2018). Global nutrition report: shining a light to spur action on nutrition.

Fitriangga, A., Albilardo, G., & Pramulya, M. (2020). DISTRIBUTION AND SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS ON MALNUTRITION CASES: A CASE STUDY IN PONTIANAK CITY. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 20(2), 56-64.

Fotheringham AS, Brunsdon C, and Charlton M. (2003). Geographically Weighted Regression: The Analysis of Spatially Varying Relationships. John Wiley & Sons.

Galasso E., Wagstaff A., (2018), The Aggregate Income Losses from Childhood Stunting and the Returns to a Nutrition Interventino Aimed at Reducing Stunting, Policy Research Working Paper 8536, Development Economics, Development Research Group, World Bank Group, 2018.

Government of Malang Regency, (2019a), Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Malang. 2019. “Rekap Hasil Operasi Timbang Kabupaten Malang 2019.” Kabupaten Malang. (Recapitulation of Weigh Operation Results for Malang Regency 2019.)

Government of Malang Regency, (2019b), Kantor Kementrian Agama Kabupaten Malang. 2019. “Laporan Usia Pengantin.” Kabupaten Malang. (Wedding Report)

Hailu, B. A., Bogale, G. G., & Beyene, J. (2020). Spatial heterogeneity and factors influencing stunting and severe stunting among under-5 children in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis. Scientific reports, 10(1), 1-10.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI (Indonesian Ministry of Health), (2017), Kesehatan Indonesia.

Lee J. and Wong S.W.D. (2001). Statistical Analysis with Arcview GIS, John Willey & Sons, Inc., United Stated of America

Marx S, Phalkey R, Aranda-Jan CB, Profe J, Sauerborn R, Höfle B. (2014). Geographic information analysis and web-based geoportals to explore malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of approaches. BMC public health; 14(1):1189-96.

Menon, Purnima, Derek Headey, Rasmi Avula, and Phuong Hong Nguyen. (2018). “Understanding the Geographical Burden of Stunting in India: A Regression-Decomposition Analysis of District-Level Data from 2015–16.” Maternal & child nutrition 14(4): e12620.

Muche, Amare, Mequannent Sharew Melaku, Erkihun Tadesse Amsalu, and Metadel Adane. (2021). “Using Geographically Weighted Regression Analysis to Cluster Under-Nutrition and Its Predictors among under-Five Children in Ethiopia: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey.” PloS one 16(5): e0248156.

Pramoedyo, H., Mudjiono, M., Fernandes, A. A., Ardianti, D., & Septiani, K. (2020). Determination of Stunting Risk Factors Using Spatial Interpolation GWR Kriging in Malang Regency. Mutiara Medika: Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan, 20(2), 98-104.

RISKESDAS, (2018), Laporan Nasional Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Kementerian Kesehatan RI (The National Report for Basic Health Research 2018, Health Research and Development Agency, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia.)

Statistics Indonesia, (2020), BPS Kabupaten Kabupaten Malang. 2020. Kabupaten Malang Dalam Angka 2020. Edited by Wahyudi Furqandari. Badan Pusat Statistik Malang. BPS Kabupaten Malang (Statistics of Malang Regency Year 2020).

World Health Organization, (2014), Global Nutrition Targets 2025: Stunting Policy Brief. Geneva: WHO.

Yosza, Frandy. (2018). Kejadian Stunting di Indonesia (Stunting case in Indonesia). Accessed from: cloud/128-stunting-di- indonesia.html.

Yrigoyen CC, Rodríguez IG, and Otero JV. (2006). Modeling Spatial Variations in Household Disposable Income with Geographically Weighted Regression. Madrid: Instituto L.R. Klein. p. 40

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 369 time(s)
HTML: 129 time(s) PDF: 23 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.