Seasonal and Inter Annual Variation of Sea Surface Temperature in the Indonesian Waters

Martono Martono(1*)

(1) Pusat Sains dan Teknologi Atmosfer LAPAN
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract

Sea surface temperature plays an important role in air-sea interactions. This research was conducted to understand seasonal and interannual variations of sea surface temperature in the Indonesian waters. The data used in this research was daily sea surface temperature in 1986 to 2015 which was obtained from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center - National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Method used in this study was the anomaly analysis. The result showed that the seasonal and interannual variations of sea surface temperature in the Indonesian waters varied. Seasonal variations of SST in the Makasar Strait, Sulawesi Sea, and Halmahera Sea were low. High seasonal variations of sea surface temperature occurred in the southern waters of Java, Timor Sea, Arafura Sea, and Banda Sea, which were allegedly due to the upwelling process. In addition, interannual variation of sea surface temperature in the Indonesian waters fluctuated. From 1986 to 2000, it showed a negative anomaly dominant. Meanwhile, from 2001 to 2015, it showed a positive anomaly dominant. The effect of Indian Ocean Dipole on the fluctuation of sea surface temperature in the Indonesian waters was stronger than ENSO. Within the last 30 years, the sea surface temperature in the Indonesian water indicated a rising trend. The highest sea surface temperature rise occurred in the Halmahera Sea that reached 0.66 OC/30 years and the lowest was in the Timor Sea of 0.36 OC/30 years.

Keywords

Sea surface temperature; Seasonal; Interannual; Indian Ocean Dipole

Full Text:

PDF

References

Anding, D. and Kauth, R. (1970). Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from Space. Remote Sensing of Environment 1: 217-220.

Bannu., Ratag, M.A., Tjasyono. (2003). Analisis Variabilitas Tahunan dan Antartahunan Temperatur Muka Laut (SST) NIÑO3.4. Prosiding Temu Ilmiah Prediksi Cuaca dan Iklim Nasional 2002, LAPAN Bandung: 59-64.

Boely, T., Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P., Potier, M., Nurhakim, S. (1990). Seasonal And Interannual Variations of The Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) In The Banda And Arafura Sea Area. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 25(4): 425-429.

Deser, C., Alexander, M.A., Xie, S.P., Phillips, A.S. (2010). Sea Surface Temperature Variability: Patterns and Mechanisms. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci, 2: 115–143.

DFID. (2007). Executive Summary: Indonesia and Climate Change. Working Paper on Current Status and Policies.

Emiyati., Setiawan, K.T., Manopo, A.K.S., Budhiman, S., Hasyim, B. (2014). Analisis Multitemporal Sebaran Suhu Permukaan Laut Di Perairan Lombok Mengunakan Data Penginderaan Jauh Modis. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Penginderaan Jauh: 470-479.

Gaol, J.L., Arhatin, R.E., Ling, M.M. (2014). Pemetaan Suhu Permukaan Laut Dari Satelit Di Perairan Indonesia Untuk Mendukung “One Map Policy”. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Penginderaan Jauh 2014: 433-442.

Halkides, D., Lee, T., Kida, S. (2011). Mechanism Controlling the Seasonal Mixed-Layer Temperature and Salinity of The Indonesian Seas. Ocean Dynamics, 61:481-495.

ICCSR. (2010). Scientific Basis : Analysis and Projection of Sea Level Rise and Extreme Weather Event. Bappenas.

Johnson, N.C. and Xie, S.P. (2010). Changes in the sea surface temperature threshold for tropical convection. Nature Geoscience, 3: 842–845.

Kasim, F. (2010). Analisis Distribusi Suhu Permukaan Menggunakan Data Citra Satelit Aqua-Modis dan Perangkat Lunak Seadas di Perairan Teluk Tomini. Jurnal Ilmiah Agropolitan, 3: 270-276.

Kida, S. and Richards, K.J. (2009). Seasonal sea surface temperature variability in the Indonesian Seas. J. Geophys. Res, 114, C06016.

Kunarso, Hadi, S., Ningsih N.S., dan Baskoro M.S. (2011). Variabilitas Suhu dan Klorofil-a di Daerah Upwelling pada Variasi Kejadian ENSO dan IOD di Perairan Selatan Jawa sampai Timor. ILMU KELAUTAN, 16(3): 171-180.

Manjunatha, B.R., Krishna, K.M., Aswini, A. (2015). Anomalies of the Sea Surface Temperature in the Indonesian Throughflow Regions: A Need for Further Investigation. The Open Oceanography Journal, 8: 2-8.

Measey, M. (2010). Indonesia: A Vulnerable Country in the Face of Climate Change. Global Majority E-Journal, 1(1): 31-45.

Nababan, B. and Simamora, K. (2012). Variabilitas Konsentrasi Klorofil-a dan Suhu Permukaan Laut di Perairan Natuna. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 4(1): 121-134.

Nontji, A. (1987). Laut Nusantara. Djambatan, Jakarta.

Qu, T., Du, Y., Strachan, J., Meyers, G., Slingo, J. (2005). Sea Surface Temperature and Its Variability In The Indonesian Region. Oceanography, 18(4): 50-61.

Rini, D.A.S., Hidayah, Z., Muhsoni, F.F. (2010). Pemetaan Suhu Permukaan Laut (SPL) Menggunakan Citra satelit ASTER Di Perairan Laut Jawa Bagian Barat Madura. Jurnal KELAUTAN, 3(2): 98-104.

Reynolds, R.W., Smith, T.M., Liu, C., Chelton, D.B., Casey, K.S., Schlax, M.G. (2007). Daily High-Resolution-Blended Analyses for Sea Surface Temperature. Journal of Climate, 20: 5473-5496.

Sachoemar, S.I. and Yanagi, T. (2000). Seasonal Variation in Sea Surface Temperature Around Java derived from NOAA AVHRR. La mer, 38: 65-75.

Sachoemar, S.I. and Yanagi, T. (2013). Temporal and Spatial Variability of Sea Surface Temperature within Indonesian Regions Revealed by Satellite Data. Reports of Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 145: 37-41.

Saji, N.H., Goswani, B.N., Vinayachandran, P.N., Yamagata, T. (1999). A Dipole Mode In The Tropical Indian Ocean. Nature, 401: 360-363.

Setiawan, R.Y. and Habibi, A. (2010). SST Cooling in the Indonesian Seas. Ilmu Kelautan, 15(1): 42 – 46.

Shenoi, S.S.C., Nasnodkar, N., Rajesh, G., Joseph, K.J., Suresh, I., Almeida, A.M. (2009). On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the north Indian Ocean. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 118(5): 483–496.

Sprintall, J., Potemra, J.T., Hautala, S.L., Bray, N.A., Pandoe, W.W. (2003). Temperature and salinity variability in the exit passages of the Indonesian Throughflow. Deep-Sea Research II, 50: 2183–2204.

Sprintall, J., Gordon, A.L., Koch-Larrouy, A., Lee, T., Potemra, J.T., Pujiana, K., Wijffels. S.E. (2014). The Indonesian seas and their role in the coupled ocean–climate system. Nature Geoscience, Progress Article Published Online.

Syaifullah, M.D. (2010). Analisis Suhu Muka Laut Selatan Jawa dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Curah Hujan DAS Citarum. Jurnal Sains & Teknologi Modifikasi Cuaca, 11(2): 11-19.

Syaifullah, M.D. (2015). Suhu Permukaan Laut Perairan Indonesia dan Hubungannya dengan Pemanasan Global. J. Segara, 11(2): 103-113.

Torrence, C and Compo, G.P. (1998). A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 79(1): 61-78.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 899 time(s)
PDF: 801 time(s)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.