Spatial and Seasonal Patterns of Flood Inundation in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

Usman Umar Jimoh(1*)

(1) Department of Urban and Regional Planning University of Ibadan
(*) Corresponding Author


The study examines spatial patterns of flood inundation in Lokoja, Kogi state, Nigeria. Maximum Likelihood Classifier algorithm of the supervised land use/cover classification technique was utilized. The results obtained from the analysis were used to estimate the magnitude and visualize the seasonal and spatial pattern of flood inundation event. Eight Landsat Images comprising of two sets for each year (dry and wet seasons) were acquired from the portal of United States Geological Survey (2018). The Landsat images were classified into land cover classes such as Built Up, Vegetation and Water Body. After completing the land cover classification, the area of each class was determined and converted to square kilometers and percentages for both wet and dry seasons. Based on the classification, the brown colour depicts the built-up areas, blue for water body, and green for vegetation. Finally, accuracy assessment was carried out using historical Google Earth images, informed knowledge of the area, and GPS coordinates. ArcMap 10.5 was used to produce land use/cover maps for the study period. The result overall, revealed the effect of flood inundation to be more intense on vegetation. 1.62%, 4.60%, 23.05% and 6.43% of vegetated land was lost in 1999, 2009, 2012 and 2018, respectively.  Therefore, efforts to improve resilience against variable weather, flood inundation and seasonal uncertainties should be encouraged.


Inundation, Flood, Spatial and seasonal, Lokoja

Full Text:



Abdelkarim, A., Gaber A.F.D., Alkadi, I.I. and Alogayell, H. M. (2019). Integrating Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling to Assess the Impact of Land-Use Changes on the Increase of Flood Risk: A Case Study of the Riyadh–Dammam Train Track, Saudi Arabia. Sustainability, 11(6003), 1-32. doi:10.3390/su11216003

Abubakar, A. J., Olowolafe, E. A., & Obansa, Y. M. (2012). Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis along River Kaduna Floodplain Using Geospatial Techniques. IIARD International Journal of Geography and Environmental Management, 1(8).

Adeniran, I. and Otokiti, K.V. (2019). Characterization of climate change manifestation in Nigeria coastal community. Climate Change, 5(20), 235-244.

Adeniran, I., Otokiti, K.V., and Durojaye, P. (2020). Climate Change Impacts in a Rapidly Growing Urban Region – A Case Study of Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 6(1), 13-23.

Aderoju, O. M., Jantiku, J., Fagbemiro, O. A., Aliyu, I., Nwadike, B. K., Ajonye, S. E., &

Adeyeri, O., Ishola, K., & Okogbue, E. (2017). Climate change and coastal floods: the susceptibility of coastal areas of Nigeria. J. Coast. Zone Manag, 20, 443.

Bhatt, G. D., Sinha, K., Deka, P. K., & Kumar, A. (2014). Flood hazard and risk assessment in Chamoli District, Uttarakhand using satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(8), 9.

Buba, F. N., Obaguo, S., Ogar, O., & Ajayi, F. O. (2021). A Participatory Assessment of the Impact of Flooding in Some Communities in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria. American Journal of Climate Change, 10(1), 12-31.

Chang, L. F., Lin, C. H., & Su, M. D. (2008). Application of geographic weighted regression to establish flood-damage functions reflecting spatial variation. Water Sa, 34(2), 209-216.

Danumah, J.H., Odai, S.N., Saley, B.M., Szarzynski, J., Thiel, M., Kwaku, A., Kouame, F.K., and Akpa, L.Y. (2016). Flood risk assessment and mapping in Abidjan district using multi-criteria analysis (AHP) model and geoinformation techniques, (cote d’ivoire). . Geoenviron. Disasters, 3, 10.

Dasgupta, S., Hossain, M. M., Huq, M., & Wheeler, D. (2015). Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh. Ambio, 44(8), 815–826.

EM-DAT (Emergency Events Database) (2010). OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, University Catholique de Louvain, Brussels,

European Council (2007). EU directive of the European parliament and of the European council on the estimation and management of flood risks (2007/60/EU). pp. 186-193. environment/water/flood_risk/

FAO (2015). Status of the world's soil resources Rome, Italy. Retrieved from

Ifatimehin, O. O., & Musa, S. D. (2008). Application of Geoinformatic Technology in Evaluating Urban Agriculture and Urban Poverty in Lokoja, Nigerian. Journal of Geography and the Environment, 1(1), 21-31.

Ishaya, S., Ifatimehin, O. O., & Abaje, I. B. (2009). Mapping flood vulnerable areas in a developing urban centre of Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 11(4), 180-194.

Jeb, D.N. and Aggarwal, S.P. (2008). Flood inundation hazard modeling of river Kaduna using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Journal of Applied Rsearch, 4(12), 1822-1833.

Kadam, P., & Sen, D. (2012). Flood inundation simulation in Ajoy River using MIKE-FLOOD. ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 18(2), 129-141.

Lee, J., Kang, E., and Jeon, S. (2012). Application of frequency ratio model and validation for predictive flooded area susceptibility mapping using GIS. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), (pp. 895–898). Munich, Germany.

Mukhtar, I., Iguisi, E. O., Shehu, A. U., Dabo, Y., Abubakar, M., Zubairu, S. M., & Balarabe, A. (2020). Effects of Landuse and Landcover Change On Flooding in Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria. Fudma Journal of Sciences, 4(3), 505-512.

Otokiti, K.V., Akinola, O., and Adeniji, K.N. (2019). Geospatial Mapping of Flood Risk in the Coastal Megacity of Nigeria. American Journal of Geophysics, Geochemistry and Geosystems, 5(4), 129-138.

Pedersen, A., Mikkelsen, P., and Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K. . (2002). Climate change-induced impacts on urban flood risk influenced by concurrent hazards. J. Flood Risk Manag., 5, 203–214.

Piégay, H., Kondolf, G. M., Minear, J. T., & Vaudor, L. (2015). Trends in publications in fluvial geomorphology over two decades: A truly new era in the discipline owing to recent technological revolution?. Geomorphology, 248, 489-500.

Pradhan, B. (2010). Flood susceptible mapping and risk area delineation using logistic regression, GIS and remote sensing. J. Spat. Hydrol., 9, 1–18.

Refice, A., D’Addabbo, A., & Capolongo, D. (2018). Methods, techniques and sensors for precision flood monitoring through remote sensing. In Flood monitoring through remote sensing (pp. 1-25). Springer, Cham.

Righini, M., & Surian, N. (2018). Remote sensing as a tool for analysing channel dynamics and geomorphic effects of floods. In Flood monitoring through remote sensing (pp. 27-59). Springer, Cham.

Salami, H.S. and Otokiti, K. V. (2019). Ineffective development control and flood susceptibility in Lokoja, Nigeria. Discovery, 55(285), 468-476.

Salman, K. S. (2014). Geospatial assessment of 2012 flood disaster in Kogi State, Nigeria. J. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. Food Technol, 8, 74-84.

Shainberg, I., & Letey, J. (1984). Response of soils to saline and sodic conditions. Hilgardia, 52(2), 1–57.

Singh, A. (1989). Review article digital change detection techniques using remotely-sensed data. International journal of remote sensing, 10(6), 989-1003.

Stefanidis, S. and Stathis, D. (2013). Assessment of flood hazard based on natural and anthropogenic factors using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Nat. Hazards, 68, 569–585.

Umaru, J. U., & Hafiz, S. S. (2019). Perceived Effects of Flood on Lives and Properties of the Residents of Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria. Discovery, 55, 441-452.

United States Geological Survey. (2018). Retrieved from

Watson, D., & Adams, M. (2010). Design for flooding: Architecture, landscape, and urban design for resilience to climate change. John wiley & sons.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 878 time(s)
PDF: 576 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.