Karst of Gunung Sewu Land Use and Land Covers Dynamics: Spatio-Temporal Analysis

Hilary Reinhart(1*), Rakhmat Dwi Putra(2), Muhamad Rifki Rafida(3), Muhammad Adrian Majiid(4), Nadhine Salsa Maulita(5)

(1) Department of Development Geography, Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Kaliurang, Sekip Utara, Bulaksumur Sinduadi Sleman, Sendowo, Sinduadi, Kec. Mlati, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Karst Research Group, Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Kaliurang, Sekip Utara, Bulaksumur Sinduadi Sleman, Sendowo, Sinduadi, Kec. Mlati, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Development Geography, Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Kaliurang, Sekip Utara, Bulaksumur Sinduadi Sleman, Sendowo, Sinduadi, Kec. Mlati, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(4) Department of Development Geography, Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Kaliurang, Sekip Utara, Bulaksumur Sinduadi Sleman, Sendowo, Sinduadi, Kec. Mlati, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(5) Urban and Regional Planning Program Study, Department of Architecture and Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No.2, Sendowo, Sinduadi, Kec. Mlati, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55284
(*) Corresponding Author


A study of karst land use and land cover dynamics is critical for managing karst areas, which provide many pivotal services for people. This study aims to study such dynamics, especially in relation to the karst of Gunung Sewu, due to its development as a new emerging sector. Using a mixed methods approach, the study combines spatial data analysis with qualitative analysis. Spatial analysis was performed to examine the dynamic of the land cover derived from 2013 and 2021 Landsat 8 imagery, analyzed with the Google Earth Engine tool, together with analysis of spatial patterns using Global Moran’s I and LISA. The spatial analysis results were complemented by a qualitative analysis of the environmental history and development trends, as an explanatory method. The land cover analysis reveals a conversion from vegetation to agriculture, while the spatial pattern analysis shows that such conversion has mostly taken place in the northern part of the study area of Wonosari Basin. The environmental history of teak forest exploitation and agriculture is key to understanding current land use related to the emerging tourism sector, which is fundamental to the region. To manage the negative impacts, sustainable land use with a firm policy framework urgently needs to be implemented.


Land Use; Land Cover; Google Earth Engine; Sustainable Land Use; Karst

Full Text:



Abebe, G., Getachew, D., & Ewunetu, A. (2022). Analysing land use/land cover changes and its dynamics using remote sensing and GIS in Gubalafito district, Northeastern Ethiopia. SN Applied Sciences, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-021-04915-8

Afrin, S., Gupta, A., Farjad, B., Razu Ahmed, M., Achari, G., & Hassan, Q. (2019). Development of land-use/land-cover maps using landsat-8 and MODIS data, and their integration for hydro-ecological applications. Sensors (Switzerland), 19(22). https://doi.org/10.3390/s19224891

Amin, C., Priyono, P., Jauhari, A., Priyana, Y., Priyono, K. D., & Cholil, M. (2017). Management of an Underground River to Overcome Water Scarcity in the Gunung Sewu Karst Area, Indonesia. Forum Geografi, 31(1), 176–183. https://doi.org/10.23917/forgeo.v31i1.4502

Bittner, D., Narany, T. S., Kohl, B., Disse, M., & Chiogna, G. (2018). Modeling the hydrological impact of land use change in a dolomite-dominated karst system. Journal of Hydrology, 567, 267–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.10.017

Boavida-Portugal, I., Rocha, J., & Ferreira, C. C. (2016). Exploring the impacts of future tourism development on land use/cover changes. Applied Geography, 77, 82–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2016.10.009

Boori, M. S., Voženílek, V., & Choudhary, K. (2015). Land use/cover disturbance due to tourism in Jeseníky Mountain, Czech Republic: A remote sensing and GIS based approach. Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 18(1), 17–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrs.2014.12.002

Buckerfield, S. J., Quilliam, R. S., Waldron, S., Naylor, L. A., Li, S., & Oliver, D. M. (2019). Rainfall-driven E. coli transfer to the stream-conduit network observed through increasing spatial scales in mixed land-use paddy farming karst terrain. Water Research X, 5, 100038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wroa.2019.100038

Budiyanto, E., Muzayanah, & Prasetyo, K. (2020). Karst Groundwater Vulnerability and Risk to Pollution Hazard in the Eastern Part of Gunungsewu Karst Area. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 412(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/412/1/012020

Chen, A., Yang, X., Guo, J., Zhang, M., Xing, X., Yang, D., Xu, B., & Jiang, L.

(2022). Dynamic of land use, landscape, and their impact on ecological quality in the northern sand-prevention belt of China. Journal of Environmental Management, 317, 115351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115351

Chen, X., Zheng, H., Zhang, W., He, X., Li, L., Wu, J., Huang, D., & Su, Y. (2014). Effects of land cover on soil organic carbon stock in a karst landscape with discontinuous soil distribution. Journal of Mountain Science, 11(3), 774–781. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2843-x

Congedo, L. (2021). Semi-Automatic Classification Plugin: A Python tool for the download and processing of remote sensing images in QGIS. Journal of Open Source Software, 6(64), 3172. https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.03172

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). SAGE Publications.

Diah, H., Adji, T. N., & Haryono, E. (2021). Perbedaan Tingkat Perkembangan Karst Daerah Peralihan antara Basin Wonosari dan Karst Gunungsewu. Media Komunikasi Geografi, 22(1), 51. https://doi.org/10.23887/mkg.v22i1.30885

Duong, M. T. T., Samsura, D. A. A., & van der Krabben, E. (2020). Land Conversion for Tourism Development under Vietnam’s Ambiguous Property Rights over Land. Land, 9(6), 204. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9060204

Faida, L. R. W. (2014). Primeval Forest in the Period of Human Cultural History on Gunungsewu Karst Indonesia. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 20, 795–802. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2014.03.096

Faisal, M. (2020). Land Conversion and the Level of Community Social Cohesion in the Sub-District of Empoang District Binamu Jeneponto Regency. Sosiohumaniora, 22(2), 198–205. https://doi.org/10.24198/sosiohumaniora.v22i2.25970

Fan, C., & Wang, Z. (2020). Spatiotemporal characterization of land cover impacts on urban warming: A spatial autocorrelation approach. Remote Sensing, 12(10), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101631

Feng, S., Li, W., Xu, J., Liang, T., Ma, X., Wang, W., & Yu, H. (2022). Land Use/Land Cover Mapping Based on GEE for the Monitoring of Changes in Ecosystem Types in the Upper Yellow River Basin over the Tibetan Plateau. Remote Sensing, 14(21), 5361. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215361

Feriyanto, N. (2015). Dominant economic sectors in Kulonprogo, Gunungkidul, and Bantul Regencies, Yogyakarta Special Province. Economic Journal of

Emerging Markets, 7(2), 93–106. https://doi.org/10.20885/ejem.vol7.iss2.art3

Fleury, S. (2009). Land Use Policy and Practice on Karst Terrains. Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9670-9

Fujiwara, T., Awang, S. A., Widayanti, W. T., Septiana, R. M., Hyakumura, K., & Sato, N. (2018). Socioeconomic Conditions Affecting Smallholder Timber Management in Gunungkidul District, Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. Small-Scale Forestry, 17(1), 41–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11842-017-9374-1

Harriyadi, N. (2020). Environmental Influence in Selecting Wonosari Basin as Settlement in Early History Period. Berkala Arkeologi, 40(2), 219–242. https://doi.org/10.30883/jba.v40i2.479

Hartawan, B. S., Erwandha, R., Irsyadi, M. B., Hidayat, M. R. A., & Sholih, D. (2020). Characteristics of Sewu Mountain Karst as Geopark Area. Journal of Global Environmental Dynamics, 1(1), 7–12. https://jurnal.uns.ac.id/jged/index

Haryono, E., Putro, S. T., Suratman, S., & Sutikno, S. (2017). Karst Morphology of Karangbolong Area, Java-Indonesia. Acta Carsologica, 46(1). https://doi.org/10.3986/ac.v46i1.3589

Haryono, E., Sasongko, M. H. D., Barianto, D. H., Setiawan, J. B., Hakim, A. A., & Zaenuri, A. (2018). The geomorphology and hydrogeology of the karstic Islands Maratua, East Kalimantan, Indonesia: The potential and constraints for tourist destination development. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 148(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/148/1/012014

Hu, Y., Batunacun, Zhen, L., & Zhuang, D. (2019). Assessment of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change in Guangxi, China. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 2189. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38487-w

Hu, Z., Wang, S., Bai, X., Luo, G., Li, Q., Wu, L., Yang, Y., Tian, S., Li, C., & Deng, Y. (2020). Changes in ecosystem service values in karst areas of China. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 301, 107026. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2020.107026

Jiao, L., Yang, R., Zhang, Y., Yin, J., & Huang, J. (2022). The Evolution and Determinants of Ecosystem Services in Guizhou—A Typical Karst Mountainous Area in Southwest China. Land, 11(8), 1164. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081164

Kabo, H. E. D. P. R., & Giyarsih, S. R. (2018). Kualitas Permukiman di Basin Wonosari dan Perbukitan Kars Gunungsewu di Kabupaten Gunungkidul. Majalah Geografi Indonesia, 32(1), 68. https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.33584

Lan, G., Liu, C., Wang, H., Tang, W., Wu, X., Yang, H., Tu, L., Hu, B. X., Cao, J., & Li, Q. (2021). The effect of land use change and soil redistribution on soil organic carbon dynamics in karst graben basin of China. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 21(7), 2511–2524. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-021-02956-5

le Polain de Waroux, Y., Garrett, R. D., Chapman, M., Friis, C., Hoelle, J., Hodel, L., Hopping, K., & Zaehringer, J. G. (2021). The role of culture in land system science. Journal of Land Use Science, 16(4), 450–466. https://doi.org/10.1080/1747423X.2021.1950229

Li, Y., & Geng, H. (2022). Evolution of Land Use Landscape Patterns in Karst Watersheds of Guizhou Plateau and Its Ecological Security Evaluation. Land, 11(12), 2225. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122225

Litasari, U. C. N., Widiatmaka, Munibah, K., & Machfud. (2022). Evaluation of carrying capacity based on land capability of Kulon Progo Regency as an input for spatial planning in the new aerotropolis era. Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam Dan Lingkungan (Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management), 12(3), 395–403. https://doi.org/10.29244/jpsl.12.3.395-403

Liu, S., Li, X., Chen, D., Duan, Y., Ji, H., Zhang, L., Chai, Q., & Hu, X. (2020). Understanding Land use/Land cover dynamics and impacts of human activities in the Mekong Delta over the last 40 years. Global Ecology and Conservation, 22, e00991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e00991

Liu, Y., Wen, G., Xu, X., Wang, Y., Hou, L., Zhang, C., Guo, Y., & Xie, Y. (2018). Dynamics Analysis and Prediction on the Land Use of Typical Karst Wetland Watershed in Southeast Yunnan, China. Proceedings of the 2018 7th International Conference on Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (ICEESD 2018). https://doi.org/10.2991/iceesd-18.2018.14

Madrigal-Martínez, S., & Miralles i García, J. L. (2019). Land-change dynamics and ecosystem service trends across the central high-Andean Puna. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46205-9

Makwinja, R., Kaunda, E., Mengistou, S., & Alamirew, T. (2021). Impact of land use/land cover dynamics on ecosystem service value—a case from Lake Malombe, Southern Malawi. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 193(8). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09241-5

Marfai, A. M., Cahyadi, A., & Anggraini, F. D. (2013). TIPOLOGI, DINAMIKA, DAN POTENSI BENCANA DI PESISIR KAWASAN KARST KABUPATEN GUNUNGKIDUL Typology, Dynamics, and Potential Disaster in The Coastal Area District Karst Gunungkidul. Forum Geografi, 27(2), 147–158.

Nibbering, J. W. (1997). Upland cultivation and soil conservation in limestone regions on Java’s south coast: three historical case studied. In P. Boomgaard, F. Colombijn, & D. Henley (Eds.), Paper landscapes: explorations in the environmental history of Indonesia. KITLV Press.

Nibbering, J. W. (1999). Tree planting on deforested farmlands, Sewu Hills, Java, Indonesia: Impact of economic and institutional changes. Agroforestry Systems, 46(1), 65–82. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006202911928

Peluso, N. L. (2006). Hutan kaya, rakyat melarat pengusaan sumberdaya dan perlawanan di Jawa. Kohpalindo.

Peng, J., Xu, Y. Q., Cai, Y. L., & Xiao, H. L. (2011). The role of policies in land use/cover change since the 1970s in ecologically fragile karst areas of Southwest China: A case study on the Maotiaohe watershed. Environmental Science & Policy, 14(4), 408–418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2011.03.009

Priyadarshini, R., Hamzah, A., & Widjajani, B. W. (2019). Carbon Stock Estimates due to Land Cover Changes at Sumber Brantas Sub-Watershed, East Java. Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 34(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.20961/carakatani.v34i1.27124

Pu, J., Zhao, X., Miao, P., Li, S., Tan, K., Wang, Q., & Tang, W. (2020). Integrating multisource RS data and GIS techniques to assist the evaluation of resource-environment carrying capacity in karst mountainous area. Journal of Mountain Science, 17(10), 2528–2547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-020-6097-0

Putra, A., Wisha, U. J., & Kusumah, G. (2017). Spatial Analysis of the River Line and Land Cover Changes in the Kampar River Estuary: The Influence of the Bono Tidal Bore Phenomenon. Forum Geografi, 31(2), 220–231. https://doi.org/10.23917/forgeo.v31i2.5290

Rahmadi, C., Wiantoro, S., & Nugroho, H. (2018). Sejarah Alam Gunungsewu. LIPI Press.

Raziq, A., Xu, A., & Li, Y. (2016). Monitoring of Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Urban Sprawl in Peshawar City in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: An Application of Geo- Information Techniques Using of Multi-Temporal Satellite Data. Journal of Remote Sensing & GIS, 05(04). https://doi.org/10.4172/2469-4134.1000174

Reinhart, H., Tamimi, S., & Maulita, N. S. (2021). Spatial Distribution of Omah Alas, Tanjungsari District, Karst of Gunung Sewu. E3S Web of Conferences, 325, 05004. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202132505004

Richter, D., Goeppert, N., Zindler, B., & Goldscheider, N. (2021). Spatial and temporal dynamics of suspended particles and E. coli in a complex surface-water and karst groundwater system as a basis for an adapted water protection scheme, northern Vietnam. Hydrogeology Journal, 29(5), 1965–1978. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-021-02356-6

Ritohardoyo, S. (2016). Perubahan Permukiman Perdesaan Pesisir Kabupaten Gunung Kidul Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Tahun 1996-2003. Forum Geografi, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.23917/forgeo.v21i1.1817

Saha, J., & Paul, S. (2021). An insight on land use and land cover change due to tourism growth in coastal area and its environmental consequences from West Bengal, India. Spatial Information Research, 29(4), 577–592. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41324-020-00368-0

Setya, R. S., Wiryani, E., & Jumari, J. (2019). Dinamika Tutupan Lahan di Kawasan Karst Kecamatan Gunem Kabupaten Rembang. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 17(2), 264. https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.17.2.264-271

Setyowati, D. L. (2021). Assessment of Watershed Carrying Capacity and Land Use Change on Flood Vulnerability Areas in Semarang City. Forum Geografi, 35(2). https://doi.org/10.23917/forgeo.v35i2.15542

Shaikh, S. F. E. A., See, S. C., Richards, D., Belcher, R. N., Grêt-Regamey, A., Galleguillos Torres, M., & Carrasco, L. R. (2021). Accounting for spatial autocorrelation is needed to avoid misidentifying trade-offs and bundles among ecosystem services. Ecological Indicators, 129, 107992. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107992

Shiska, P., Prasetyo, Y., & Suprayogi, A. (2017). Analisis Identifikasi Kawasan Karst Menggunakan Metode Polarimetrik Sar (Synthetic Aperture Radar) Dan Klasifikasi Supervised. Jurnal Geodesi Undip, 6(1), 66–73.

Susanawati, Wijaya, O., & Barik Rizqi, M. (2022). Local food development strategy in hilly areas of Gunungkidul Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 1016(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/1016/1/012026

Tamimi, S., & Rahmi, D. H. (2020). Omah Alas as an Adaptive Dwelling in Karst Area: Spatial Characteristics. Built Environment Studies, 1(1), 45–51. https://doi.org/10.22146/best.v1i1.513

Twisa, S., & Buchroithner, M. F. (2019). Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) Change Detection in Wami River Basin, Tanzania. Land, 8(9), 136. https://doi.org/10.3390/land8090136

Vitrianto, P. N., Nuryanti, W., & Rahmi, D. H. (2021). Dynamics of Tourism Development in Geosite, Gunungsewu Geopark. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 2(4), 213–232. https://doi.org/10.35912/joste.v2i4.836

Wang, H., Zhang, J., & Li, B. (2018). ECOLOGICAL CARRYING CAPACITY OF LAND USE CHANGES IN DA’AN CITY. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII–3, 1707–1712. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-3-1707-2018

Wang, K., Zhang, C., Chen, H., Yue, Y., Zhang, W., Zhang, M., Qi, X., & Fu, Z. (2019). Karst landscapes of China: patterns, ecosystem processes and services. Landscape Ecology, 34(12), 2743–2763. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-019-00912-w

Wang, M., Qin, K., Jia, Y., Yuan, X., & Yang, S. (2022). Land Use Transition and Eco-Environmental Effects in Karst Mountain Area Based on Production-Living-Ecological Space: A Case Study of Longlin Multinational Autonomous County, Southwest China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(13). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137587

Waridin, W., & Astawa, I. P. (2021). SHIFTING OF LAND USE IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: A LOCAL CULTURAL APPROACH IN INDONESIA. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 35(2), 270–274. https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.35201-647

Wijaya, N. (2015). DETEKSI PERUBAHAN PENGGUNAAN LAHAN DENGAN CITRA LANDSAT DAN SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS: STUDI KASUS DI WILAYAH METROPOLITAN BANDUNG, INDONESIA. Geoplanning: Journal of Geomatics and Planning, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.14710/geoplanning.2.2.82-92

Wijayanti, P., & Noviani, R. (2020). Disaster Threats in the Gunungsewu Karst Area and Mitigation Efforts in the Framework of Disaster Risk Reduction Review of the Hydrological and Geomorphological Aspects. Social, Humanities, and Educational Studies (SHEs): Conference Series, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.20961/shes.v3i1.45067

Xiao, H., & Weng, Q. (2007). The impact of land use and land cover changes on land surface temperature in a karst area of China. Journal of Environmental Management, 85(1), 245–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.07.016

Yudita, A. (2017). The Effect of Tourism Development on Land Conversion in East Lombok Regency. Sumatra Journal of Disaster, Geography and Geography Education, 1(2), 160. https://doi.org/10.24036/sjdgge.v1i2.60

Yue, F. J., Waldron, S., Li, S. L., Wang, Z. J., Zeng, J., Xu, S., Zhang, Z. C., & Oliver, D. M. (2019). Land use interacts with changes in catchment hydrology to generate chronic nitrate pollution in karst waters and strong seasonality in excess nitrate export. Science of the Total Environment, 696, 134062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134062

Zhang, Z., Hu, B., & Qiu, H. (2022). Comprehensive evaluation of resource and environmental carrying capacity based on SDGs perspective and Three-dimensional Balance Model. Ecological Indicators, 138, 108788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108788

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 388 time(s)
PDF: 310 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.