Livelihood Strategies as Responses to Water Availability in Pusur Subwatershed, Bengawan Solo

Rathna Wijayanti(1*), Muhammad Baiquni(2), Rika Harini(3)

(1) Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta
(2) 
(3) Gadjah Mada University
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract

Water availability has a significant role on human life, particularly for the rural, agrarian communities. This study aimed to investigate the diverse conditions of water availability in Pusur sub-watershed, Bengawan Solo watershed, and the livelihood strategies of the local community in responding to the water availability. The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis, and the data was collected through questionnaire, in-depth interview, and observation. On the water availability, the study used the following variables: (1) quality, (2) quantity, (3) spatial and temporal distribution, (4) access, (5) social-economy, and (5) institutional aspect. On the livelihood strategies, it uses: (1) reaction and (2) anticipation for water deficit. In term of sampling methods, the study used area and purposive sampling, by splitting the study site into the upper, middle, and lower area. The analysis of this study indicates that the level of water availability in the upper area is considered low. The community living in the upper area depends upon rainwater for its agricultural sector, and upon the water supply distributed by pipelines and tanker trucks for its household. The study also indicates that the middle area has abundant water supply, but the quality has been declined due to pollution, poor sanitation system, and potential conflict among the community members. Meanwhile, in the lower area, particularly in the dry season, irrigation water has been inadequate. Responding to the diverse water availability, the community has applied the following livelihood strategies: (1) leaving the agricultural land uncultivated in the upper area, and (2) pumping wells and rivers in the middle and lower areas. In addition, as part of its precautions actions, the community has applied: (1) agroforestry system at the upper area, (2) improved the irrigation system of the middle area, and (3) creating wells and using water pumps in the lower area. 

Keywords

livelihood strategies; water availability; watershed

Full Text:

PDF

References

Baiquni, M., 2006, Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Perdesaan dan Strategi Penghidupan Rumah Tangga di Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta pada Masa Krisis (1998-2003), Disertation: Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Bank Dunia, 2010, “Adaptasi terhadap Perubahan Iklim”, accessed at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/Publication/280016-1235115695188/5847179-1258084722370/Adaptasi.terhadap.Perubahan.Iklim.pdf, on 20 April 2016.

Chambers R. & Conway, G. R. 1992. Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Concepts for the 21st Century, University of Sussex, Working Paper No. 296, Brighton: IDS.

Depdiknas, 2008, “Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia”, Gramedia Pustaka Indonesia.

DFID, 2001, Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheets, Number 1-8, London: Department for International Development (UK), London (accessesd at: www.livelihoods.org).

Dirjen RLPS, 2009, Peraturan Direktur Jenderal Rehabilitasi Lahan dan Perhutanan Sosial No.: P.04/V-SET/2009 tentang Pedoman Monitoring dan Evaluasi DAS, Jakarta.

Ellis, F., 2000, Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries, Oxford University Press.

Eureka Pendidikan, 2015, accessed on 18 September 2016 at: http://www.eurekapendidikan.com/2015/09/defenisi-sampling-dan-teknik-sampling.html

FAO, 2007, Why Invest in Watershed Management?, Food and Agricultural Organisation, Rome, Italy.

Khan, Tahir Husnain, 2014, Water scarcity and its impact on agriculture, Case Study of Layyah, Pakistan, Department of Urban and Rural Development.

Harsoyo, B., 2011, Konsep Air Virtual (Virtual Water Concept): Jurnal Sains & Teknologi Modifikasi Cuaca, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2011: 25-32.

Meida, A.N., 2012, Konflik Antar Sektor di Kabupaten Klaten, accessed at: http://www.kompasiana.com/avidnurmeida/konflik-antarsektor-di-kabupaten-klaten_551077c6a333119737ba82e8, on 30 December 2015.

Sosiawan, H., and Subagyono, K., 2009, Strategi Pembagian Air secara Proporsional untuk Keberlanjutan Pemanfaatan Air: Jurnal Pengembangan Inovasi Pertanian 2(4), 2009: 299-305, Bogor.

Sosiawan, H., and Kartiwa, B., 2011, Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Air Terpadu di Kabupaten Klaten, Tinjauan dari Aspek Hidrologi”, Buletin Hasil Penelitian Agroklimat dan Hidrologi Volume 8: 41-45.

Scoones, I., 1998, Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Analysis, University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies, Working Paper No. 72, Brighton: IDS.

Scale Up dan Ford Foundation, 2011, Konflik Sumber Daya Alam dan Penghidupan yang Berkelanjutan, Buletin Scale Up Edisi II/2011, accessed at: www.scaleup.or.id, on 9 November 2015.

Winarto, 2013, Strategi Adaptasi Masyarakat terhadap Perubahan Iklim: sebuah Pendekatan Holistik dan Integratif, accessed at: http://winarto.in/2013/03/strategi-adaptasi-masyarakat-terhadap-perubahan-iklim-sebuah-pendekatan-holistis-dan-integratif/, on 19 April 2016.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 585 time(s)
PDF: 422 time(s)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.