Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Landslides in Java and the Triggering Factors

Danang Sri Hadmoko(1*), Franck Lavigne(2), Junun Sartohadi(3), Christopher Gomez(4), D Daryono(5)

(1) Department Geografi Lingkungan, Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne & Laboratoire de Géographie Physique, UMR 8591 CNRS, Meudon, France
(3) Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) UCR3 - Risk, Resilience & Renewal, Waterways: Centre for Freshwater Management, College of Science, Department of Geography, University of Canterbury private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
(5) Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency, Jl. Angkasa No. 1-2, Kemayoran, Jakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Java Island, the most populated island of Indonesia, is prone to landslide disasters. Their occurrence and impact have increased mainly as the result of natural factors, aggravated by human imprint. This paper is intended to analyse: (1) the spatio-temporal variation of landslides in Java during short term and long-term periods, and (2) their causative factors such as rainfall, topography, geology, earthquakes, and land-use. The evaluation spatially and temporally of historical landslides and consequences were based on the landslide database covering the period of 1981 – 2007 in the GIS environment. Database showed that landslides distributed unevenly between West Java (67 %), Central Java (29 %) and East Java (4 %). Slope failures were most abundant on the very intensively weathered zone of old volcanic materials on slope angles of 30O – 40O. Rainfall threshold analysis showed that shallow landslides and deep-seated landslides were triggered by rainfall events of 300 – 600 mm and > 600 mm respectively of antecedent rainfall during 30 consecutive days, and many cases showed that the landslides were not always initiated by intense rainfall during the landslide day. Human interference plays an important role in landslide occurrence through land conversion from natural forest to dryland agriculture which was the host of most of landslides in Java. These results and methods can be used as valuable information on the spatio-temporal characteristics of landslides in Java and their relationship with causative factors, thereby providing a sound basis for landslide investigation in more detail.


landslides, spatio-temporal distribution, causative factors, Java, Indonesia.

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