An Exploration of Food Insecurity, Poverty, Livelihood and Local Food Potentials in Kulon Progo Regency, Indonesia

Dodi Widiyanto(1*)

(1) Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601
(*) Corresponding Author


Kulon Progo has been struggled to cope with the issues of poverty and food insecurity. The provincial and local governments pay a lot of attention to tackling these deprivation problems. The BKPP DIY developed a composite index which concluded that poverty is the primary cause of the deprivation. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the rural deprivation in Kulon Progo by assessing its aspects including poverty, food insecurity conditions, livelihoods, and local food potentials. Several methods, including typology, livelihood calculation, and resource possibility mapping are introduced for the preliminary analysis of this deprivation. The findings show that in Kulon Progo, (1) most of the deprived areas are located in the typology of upland region, (2) based on its of five assets, in general, the livelihood condition in Kulon Progo needs an improvement on financial, natural, and physical capitals, and (3) presenting the local food clusters based on its local food plantation area and production, so that these findings could give alternatives for the decision makers to develop the rural (deprived) areas.


food insecurity village; poverty; livelihood; local food potentials

Full Text:



Anselin, L. (1995). Local Indicators of Spatial Association—LISA. Geographical Analysis, 27(2), 93-115. doi:10.1111/j.1538-4632.1995.tb00338.x.

Baiquni, M. (2008). The Economic and Ecological Crises and Their Impact on Livelihood Strategies of Rural Households in Yogyakarta. In M. J. Titus & P. P. M. Burgers (Eds.), Rural Livelihoods, Resources and Coping with Crisis in Indonesia: A Comparative Study. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. (2016). RAWAN PANGAN: 20 Desa di Jogja Perlu Cadangan Logistik. Bisnis Indonesia. Retrieved from

BKPP. (2015). Peta Rawan Pangan dan Gizi Tingkat Desa Se-Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Tahun 2015. Yogyakarta: Satuan Kerja Badan Ketahanan Pangan dan Penyuluhan (BKPP) Propinsi DIY.

Borch, A., & Kjærnes, U. (2016). Food security and food insecurity in Europe: An analysis of the academic discourse (1975–2013). Appetite, 103, 137-147. doi:

BPS. (2008). Kabupaten Kulon Progo Dalam Angka 2008. Kulon Progo: Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Kulon Progo.

Brewer, C. A., & Pickle, L. (2002). Evaluation of Methods for Classifying Epidemiological Data on Choropleth Maps in Series. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 92(4), 662-681.

Carlson, S. J., Andrews, M. S., & Bickel, G. W. (1999). Measuring Food Insecurity and Hunger in the United States: Development of a National Benchmark Measure and Prevalence Estimates. The Journal of Nutrition, 129(2), 510S-516S. doi:10.1093/jn/129.2.510S.

DKP, Pertanian, D., & WFP. (2009). Peta Ketahanan Pangan dan Kerentanan Pangan Indonesia (A Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas of Indonesia) 2009. Retrieved from Jakarta:

DKP, Pertanian, D., & WFP. (2015). Peta Ketahanan dan Kerentanan Pangan Indonesia 2015. Retrieved from Jakarta:

Ellis, F. (2000). Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Eroğlu, Ş. (2013). Extending the Resource-Based Approach to Livelihoods: An Urban Application to Turkish Gecekondu Households. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 37(2), 769-789.

Frongillo, J. E. A. (1999). Validation of Measures of Food Insecurity and Hunger. The Journal of Nutrition, 129(2), 506S-509S. doi:10.1093/jn/129.2.506S

Glaeser, B. (2016). From global sustainability research matrix to typology: a tool to analyze coastal and marine social-ecological systems. Regional Environmental Change, 16(2), 367-383. doi:10.1007/s10113-015-0817-y.

Gunardo, R. B. (2004). Farming Technology, Farmers’ Income and Livelihood Diversification in Kulon Progo. Forum Geografi, 13(1).

Hadley, C., & Crooks, D. L. (2012). Coping and the biosocial consequences of food insecurity in the 21st century. 149(S55), 72-94.

Hapsari, N. I., & Rudiarto, I. (2017). Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kerawanan dan Ketahanan Pangan dan Implikasi Kebijakannya di Kabupaten Rembang. 2017, 5(2), 16. doi:10.14710/jwl.5.2.125-140.

Kristjanson, P., Radeny, M., Baltenweck, I., Ogutu, J., & Notenbaert, A. (2005). Livelihood mapping and poverty correlates at a meso-level in Kenya. Food Policy, 30(5), 568-583. doi:

Magombeyi, M. S., Taigbenu, A. E., & Barron, J. (2016). Rural food insecurity and poverty mappings and their linkage with water resources in the Limpopo River Basin. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 92, 20-33.

Messer, L. C., Laraia, B. A., Kaufman, J. S., Eyster, J., Holzman, C., Culhane, J., O’Campo, P. (2006). The Development of a Standardized Neighborhood Deprivation Index. Journal of Urban Health, 83(6), 1041-1062. doi:10.1007/s11524-006-9094-x

Mooney, P. H., & Hunt, S. A. (2009). Food Security: The Elaboration of Contested Claims to a Consensus Frame. Rural Sociology, 74(4), 469-497.

Noble, M., Wright, G., Smith, G., & Dibben, C. (2006). Measuring Multiple Deprivation at the Small-Area Level. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 38(1), 169-185. doi:10.1068/a37168.

Pereira, L. M., Cuneo, C. N., & Twine, W. C. (2014). Food and cash: understanding the role of the retail sector in rural food security in South Africa. Food Security, 6(3), 339-357. doi:10.1007/s12571-014-0349-1.

Qudrat-I Elahi, K. (2006). Entitlement failure and deprivation: a critique of Sen's famine philosophy. The Journal of Development Studies, 42(4), 541-558. doi:10.1080/00220380600680771.

Rigg, J. (2006). Land, farming, livelihoods, and poverty: Rethinking the links in the Rural South. World Development, 34(1), 180-202. doi:

Rijanta, R. (2008). Livelihood Strategies, Responses to the Crisis, and the Role of Non-Agricultural Activities in Five Villages in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. In M. J. Titus & P. P. M. Burgers (Eds.), Rural Livelihoods, Resources and Coping With Crisis in Indonesia. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Ringland, G. (1998). Scenario Planning: Managing for the Future. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Rose, D. (1999). Economic Determinants and Dietary Consequences of Food Insecurity in the United States. The Journal of Nutrition, 129(2), 517S-520S. doi:10.1093/jn/129.2.517S.

Rowell, K. S. (2012). Making a Box and Whisker Plot in Excel. Retrieved from

Sen, A. (1982). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shackleton, S., Campbell, B., Lotz-Sisitka, H., & Shackleton, C. (2008). Links between the Local Trade in Natural Products, Livelihoods and Poverty Alleviation in a Semi-arid Region of South Africa. World Development, 36(3), 505-526. doi:

Sindo, K. (2016). 20 Desa di DIY Masih Rawan Pangan. Koran Sindo. Retrieved from

SMERU. (2014). Poverty and Livelihood Map of Indonesia 2015 (online). Retrieved from: (2016). Ketahanan Pangan: 20 Desa di DIY Masih Rawan Pangan. Solopos. Retrieved from

Subejo, Fidiashtry, A., Aryudiawan, C., Suadi, Awaluddin, L., & Marfai Muh, A. (2017). Food insecurity as a basis for drafting a Strategic Food Sovereignty Plan: A case study of the Kutai Kartanegara District, Indonesia. Quaestiones Geographicae, Vol. 36, pp. 141.

Sutanto, A. (2008). Livelihoods and Coping Responses to the Crisis in Four Villages with Different Farm Systems in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. In M. J. Titus & P. P. M. Burgers (Eds.), Rural Livelihoods, Resources and Coping Crisis in Indonesia: A Comparative Study. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Toddenroth, D., Ganslandt, T., Castellanos, I., Prokosch, H.-U., & Bürkle, T. (2014). Employing heat maps to mine associations in structured routine care data. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 60(2), 79-88. doi:

Tomlinson, I. (2013). Doubling food production to feed the 9 billion: A critical perspective on a key discourse of food security in the UK. Food Security, 29(Supplement C), 81-90.

Widyatmoko, D. S. (2008). The Effects of the Crisis on Livelihood Systems in “Rurban” Areas: Case Studies in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. In M. J. Titus & P. P. M. Burgers (Eds.), Rural Livelihoods, Resources and Coping With Crisis in Indonesia. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 1372 time(s)
PDF: 525 time(s) HTML: 1176 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.