Cytotoxicity of Mangrove Leaves (Rhizophora) Ethanolic Extract on Cancer Cells

Haryoto Saroyo, Nur Fajariyah Maulidah Saputri

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23917/jnhm.v4i1.15657

Abstract

Cancer is a disease that can attack any part of the body when the abnormal cells begin to grow  uncontrollably beyond the limit, then attack the connected parts of the body and  spread to other organs. The mangrove (Rhizophora) is a herbal plant that can be used as a treatment for various diseases, one of which is cancer. The mangrove (Rhizophora) plant contains phytochemicals  ranging from fruit, seeds, leaves and roots. This review article aims to examine the cytotoxicity effects of mangrove (Rhizophora)  plants on cancer cells. The library sources in this article review use the Google Scholar and PubMed databases. The inclusion criteria used were articles containing the cytotoxic test of mangrove (Rhizophora) with the last 10 years of publication (2011-2020), original research, there were results of anticancer activity in the form of IC50 and research using   mangrove (Rhizophora).  plant extracts. The exclusion criteria used were articles that did not contain a full text, used plants with different genus, did not have an IC50 value and were not original research. From the journals that have been analyzed, it can be said that the extract of the mangrove (Rhizophora) plant can be developed for cancer treatment. The mangrove (Rhizophora) plant has cytotoxic activity because it contains active compounds in the form of phenolic, flavonoids and terpenoids. Based on the results of the cytotoxic test of mangrove (Rhizophora) extract, the plant parts that have the strongest cytotoxic effect are fruit.

Keywords

Cytotoxic; Rhizophora; MCF-7; IC50

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abou Assi R., Darwis Y., Abdulbaqi IM, khan AA, Vuanghao L. and Laghari MH, 2017, Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A comprehensive review on its industrial uses, pharmacological activities, and clinical trials, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10 (5), 691–707. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.06.018.

Akmal, Mutaroh, et al., 2010. Encyclopedia of Public Health. Jogjakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media

Anggoro S, 2013. "Distribution of Heavy Metal Lead (Pb) in Mangrove Plants Rhizopora mucronata and Rhizophora apiculata in Segara Anakan Waters" National Seminar of Chemical Engineering Study Program, University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto.

Archana P., Samatha T., Mahitha B., Chamundeswari and RamaSwany N., 2012, Pleriminary phytochemical screening from leaf and seed extracts of Senna alata L. Roxb-an Ethnomedicinalplant, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, 3 (3) , 82-89

ATTC, 2012, Thawing, Propagating and Cryopreserving Protocol MCF-7 Breast adenocarcinoma, In American Type Culture Collection 10801 University Blvd Manassas, Physical Sciences-Oncology Center Network Bioresource Core Facility, Manassas, p. 22

Aziz MYA, Omar AR, Subramani T., Yeap SK, Ho WY, Ismail NH, Ahmad S., and Alitheen NB, 2014, Damnacanthal is a potent inducer of apoptosis with anticancer activity by stimulating p53 and p21 genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, Oncology Letters, 7 (5), 1479–1484.

Bansal T., Jaggi M., Khar RK, and Talegaonkar S., 2009, the Emerging significance of flavonoids as P-glycoprotein inhibitors in cancer chemotherapy, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12 (1), 46-78

Bayu, A. Mangrove Forest as a Source of Marine Natural Products. http://jurnal.pdii.lipi.go.id//admin/jurnal/342091523.pdf. Retrieved March 11, 2011

CCRC UGM, 2013, Cytotoxic Test Protocol MTT Method, Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy UGM

CCRC UGM, 2014, Cell MCF7, CCRC UGM are located at: file:///E:/JOURNAL/kanker/mcf7/Sel%20MCF-7%20_%20CCRC.html [Accessed May 5, 2018]

Desmiaty Y., H R., MA D., and R A., 2008. Determination of Total Tannins in Dutch Teak Leaves (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk) and Blood Sambang Leaves (Excoecaria bicolor Hassk) Colorimetrically with Prussian Blue Reagent, Orthocarpus, 8, 106-109

Dowsett M: Introduction to Sessions on 'Predicting personal risk for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research 2008, 10, London, UK.

Duke N, Khatiresan K, Salmo S, Fernando, Peras J, Sukardjo S, et al., 2010. Rhizophora apiculata. Red Lis, 5(2), pp. 1-6

Dwidjoseputro, 2010. Basics of Microbiology. Bridge. Jakarta

Fajarwati, 2014, Cytotoxic activity of Polar, semi-polar and Non-polar Fractions Ethanol Extract of Sala Plant Leaves (Cynometra ramiflora Linn.) Against T47D Cells, Thesis, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Gibbs, CR, Jackson, G. & Lip, GYH, 2000, ABC og Heart Failure: Non Drug Management, BMJ, 320, 366-369

Hanahan D, Weinberg RA The Hamllmarks of Cancer. Cells. 2000;153:17-70. [PubMed]

Harborne JB, 1998, Phytocemical Method A Guide to Modern Technique of Plant analysis, Third edit, Chapman & Hall, an imprint of Thornson Science, 2-6 boundary Row London SE18HN, UK

Haryoto and Hapsari A., 2017 Cytotoxicity of Ethanol Extract and Its Three Fractions of Colloidal Herbs (Isotoma longiflora (L.) C. Presi.) Against MCF-7 cells

Haryoto, Muhtadi, Indrayudha P., Azizah T., Suhendi A., 2013,Cytotoxic Activity of Ethanol Extract of Sala Plant (Cynometra ramiflora Linn) against HeLa, T47D and WiDR Cells, Scientific Research Journal, 18 (2), 21-27.

I TC, Pereira J., Ii DF, Lucilvânia A., Chaves F., Andrade F. and Lopes R., 2014, Evaluation of antitumoral and antimicrobial activity of Rhizopora, , 29, 10–14.

Indica M, Ulqodry TZ, Hendri M. 2009. Changes in Mangrove Area Using Remote Sensing Techniques in the Nine National Park, Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatra Province [Thesis]. Indralaya: Sriwijaya University

Irfanah, 2014, Cytotoxic activity of Polar, semi-polar and Non-polar Fractions of Ethanol Extract of Sala Plant Leaves (Cynometra ramiflora Linn.) Against Vero Cells, Thesis, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Lim SL, Mustapha NM, Goh YM, Bakar NAA and Mohamed S., 2016, Metastasized lung cancer suppression by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaf compared to Erlotinib via anti-inflammatory, endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic gene activation, Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 416 (1–2), 85–97.

Lian Ee GC, 2018, Cytotoxic Activities of Anthraquinones from Rhizophora towards SNU-1 and LS-174T and K562 Cell Lines, Archives of Natural and Medicinal Chemistry.

Kartawinata, K., S. Adisoemarto, S. Soemodihardjo, and IGK Tantra. 1978. Knowledge Status of Mangrove Forests in Indonesia. Proceedings of the Mangrove Forest Ecosystem Seminar in Jakarta: MAB Indonesia and the National Oceanology Institute

Lv L., Chen H., Ho CT and Sang S., 2011, Chemical components of the roots of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) and their cytotoxic effects, Fitotherapy, 82 (4), 704–708. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2011.02.008.

Markham K., 1998, How to Identify Flavonoids, Padmawinata, K., ed., ITB Publisher, Bandung

Noor YR, Khazali, M. & Suryadiputra I., 2012. A Guide to the Introduction of Mangroves in Indonesia, Bogor: Wetlands International Indonesia Programme.

Patil VM and Masand N., 2018, Anticancer Potential of Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biological Activities, and Future Perspectives, 1st ed., Elsevier BV Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444- 64179-3.00012-8.

Prabhu, VV and Guruvayoorappan, C., 2012. Evaluation of immunostimulant activity and chemoprotective effect of mangrove Rhizophora apiculata against cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in BALB/c mice. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 34(4), 608-615

Prabhu, VV and Guruvayoorappan, C., 2013. Inhibition of metastatic lung cancer in C57BL/6 mice by marine mangrove Rhizophora apiculata. Asian Pacific Journal of cancer prevention, 14(3), 1833-1840

Santoso, N. et al. 2005. Food Recipes Made from Mangrove and Nipah Utilization. Institute for the Study and Development of Mangroves

Shaghayegh G., Alabsi AM, Ali-Saeed R., Ali AM, Vincent-Chong VK and Zain RB, 2016, Cell cycle arrest and mechanism of apoptosis induction in H400 oral cancer cells in response to Damnacanthal and Nordamnacanthal isolated from Rhizopora, Cytotechnology , 68 (5), 1999–2013.

Sharma K., Pachauri SD, Khandelwal K., Ahmad H., Arya A., Biala P., Agrawal S., Pandey RR, Srivastava A., Srivastav A., Saxena JK and Dwivedi AK, 2015, Anticancer Effects of Extracts from the Fruit of Rhizopora in Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Drug Research, 66 (3), 141–147.

Sebaugh JL, 2011, Guidelines for accurate EC50/IC50 estimation, Pharmaceutical Statistics, 10 (2), 128–134.

Setyawan, A. D, and Winarno Kusumo, 2006. Direct Utilization of Mangrove Ecosystems in Central Java and Land Use in Surrounding Areas; Damage and Restoration Efforts. Journal of Biodiversity (7) No.3 : 282-289

Sulistiyowati H. Mangrove Biodiversity in Sempu Island Nature Reserve. Scientific Journal, 2009;8:59

Suryaningsih Kori Endang. 2009. Peel Complete Breast Cancer. Yogyakarta: Indonesian Paradigm

Sutarno S. 2000. “Potentials and Benefits of Mangrove Plants as a Source of Bioactive Ingredients', Acta Pharmaceutical Indonesia. 12(4), 84-103

Srinivasahan V. and Durairaj B., 2015, In vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of polysaccharide rich rhizophora fruit on mcf-7 cells, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 8 (2), 190–193.

Tjindarbumi D. and Mangunkusumo R., 2002, Cancer in Indonesia, present and future, Japanese journal of clinical oncology, 32 (Supplement 1), S17-21

Voon HC, Bhat R. and Rusul G., 2012 flower extracts and their essential oils as potential antimicrobial agent for food uses and pharmaceutical applications, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11 (1), 34-55

Warsinah. 2009. "Antivity of Anticancer Ethanol Extract of Rhizopora mucronata Leaf Against Artemia salina Leach Shrimp Larva and Raji Cells" Journal of Molecules. Vol. IV No.1

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 112 time(s)
PDF: 139 time(s)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.