Study of Liquid Self-nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (L-SNEDDS) that Use Oleic Acid as the Oil Phase: Literature Review

Ratih Guswinda Lestari(1), Anita Sukmawati(2*)

(1) 1Magister Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Jl. Ahmad Yani Tromol Pos 1 Pabelan, Kartasura, Sukoharjo, 57162, Indonesia 2 Bachelor of Pharmacy, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Nasional Surakarta, Jl. Solo Baki, Kwarasan, Grogol, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
(2) Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Muhammadiyah Surakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) is a nanoemulsion system that can be used to increase the bioavailability of drugs that are hardly soluble in water and have low bioavailability. Oleic acid, a saturated fatty acid that is found in many vegetable oils, is an oil that is often used for the oil phase in SNEDDS. Therefore, this review article aims to review, study, analyze and explore the optimum formula of SNEDDS that use oleic acid as the oil phase. The articles were searched via Google Schoolar, Science Direct, and Pubmed. The total number of articles is 464 articles. The total number articles that include exclusion criteria is 453 articles. The total article that use is 11 articles. SNEDDS, which uses oleic acid as the oil phase, produces droplet sizes of 19.75-190.03 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.278-0.532. Zeta potential value, only 2 articles have a zeta potential value above +/-30, that is mefenamic acid SNEDDS and furosemide SNEDDS. Overall, SNEDDS which uses oleic acid as the oil phase has a better dissolution and bioavailability profile compared to the commercial product or the pure drug. If solubility and bioavailability increase, it can increase the pharmacological activity of the drugs


SNEDDS, oleic acid, characteristics

Full Text:



Aisy, Z. H. R., Puspita, O. E., and Shalas, A. F. 2021. Optimasi formula nanoemulsi nifedipin dengan metode self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (snedds). Pharmaceutical Journal of Indonesia, 6(2), pp.85–95.

Ali, H. H., and Hussein, A. A. 2017. Oral nanoemulsions of candesartan cilexetil: formulation, characterization and in vitro drug release studies. Aaps Open, 3(1), pp.1–16.

Alothaid, H., Aldughaim, M. S., Yusuf, A. O., Yezdani, U., Alhazmi, A., Habibullah, M. M., and Khan, M. G. 2021. A comprehensive study of the basic formulation of supersaturated self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (snedds) of albendazolum. Drug Delivery, 28(1), pp.2119–2126.

Ansari, M. J., Alnakhli, M., Al-Otaibi, T., Meanazel, O. Al, Anwer, M. K., Ahmed, M. M., Alshahrani, S. M., Alshetaili, A., Aldawsari, M. F., Alalaiwe, A. S., Alanazi, A. Z., Zahrani, M. A., and Ahmad, N. 2021. Formulation and evaluation of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of brigatinib: improvement of solubility, in vitro release, ex-vivo permeation and anticancer activity. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 61, 102204.

Astuti, I. Y., Marchaban, M., Martien, R., and Nugroho, A. E. 2017. Design and optimization of self nano-emulsifying drug delivery system containing a new anti-inflammatory agent pentagamavunon-0. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 17(3), pp.365–375.

Beg, S., Jain, S., Kushwah, V., Bhatti, G. K., Sandhu, P. S., Katare, O. P., and Singh, B. 2017. Novel surface-engineered solid lipid nanoparticles of rosuvastatin calcium for low-density lipoprotein-receptor targeting: a quality by design-driven perspective. Nanomedicine, 12(4), pp.333–356.

Bhikshapathi, D. V. R. N., and Priya, K. (2018). Development and in vivo Evaluation Lovastatin by Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 10(03), pp.165–172.

Czajkowska-Kos̈nik, A., Szekalska, M., Amelian, A., Szymańska, E., and Winnicka, K. 2015. Development and evaluation of liquid and solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems for atorvastatin. Molecules, 20(12), pp.21010–21022.

Date, A. A., Desai, N., Dixit, R., and Nagarsenker, M. 2010. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems: formulation insights, applications and advances. Nanomedicine, 5(10), pp.1595–1616.

Hashem, F. M., Al-Sawahli, M. M., Nasr, M., and Ahmed, O. A. A. 2015. Custom fractional factorial designs to develop atorvastatin self-nanoemulsifying and nanosuspension delivery systems--enhancement of oral bioavailability. Drug Design, Development and Therapy, 9, pp.3141–3152.

Kassem, A. A., Mohsen, A. M., Ahmed, R. S., and Essam, T. M. 2016. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (snedds) with enhanced solubilization of nystatin for treatment of oral candidiasis: design, optimization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 218, pp. 219–232.

Ke, Z., Hou, X., and Jia, X. bin. 2016. Design and optimization of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems for improved bioavailability of cyclovirobuxine D. Drug Design, Development and Therapy, 10, pp.2049–2060.

Larsen, A. T., Ohlsson, A. G., Polentarutti, B., Barker, R. A., Phillips, A. R., Abu-Rmaileh, R., Dickinson, P. A., Abrahamsson, B., Østergaard, J., and Müllertz, A. 2013. Oral bioavailability of cinnarizine in dogs: relation to snedds droplet size, drug solubility and in vitro precipitation. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 48(1–2), pp.339–350.

Leong, T. S. H., Wooster, T. J., Kentish, S. E., and Ashokkumar, M. 2009. Minimising oil droplet size using ultrasonic emulsification. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 16(6), pp.721–727.

Li, F., Song, S., Guo, Y., Zhao, Q., Zhang, X., Pan, W., and Yang, X. 2015. Preparation and pharmacokinetics evaluation of oral self-emulsifying system for poorly water-soluble drug Lornoxicam. Drug Delivery, 22(4), pp.487–498.

Liu, C., Lv, L., Guo, W., Mo, L., Huang, Y., Li, G., and Huang, X. 2018. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of tetrandrine for improved bioavailability: physicochemical characterization and pharmacokinetic study. BioMed Research International, pp.1-10

Listyorini, N.M.D., Wijayanti, N.I.P.D., and Astuti, K.W. Optimasi pembuatan nanoemulsi virgin coconut oil. Jurnal Kimia, 12(1), pp.8-12.

Michaelsen, M. H., Siqueira Jørgensen, S. D., Abdi, I. M., Wasan, K. M., Rades, T., and Müllertz, A. 2019. Fenofibrate oral absorption from SNEDDS and super-SNEDDS is not significantly affected by lipase inhibition in rats. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 142, pp. 258–264.

Mora, E., Emrizal Emrizal, and Selpas, N. 2013. Isolasi dan karakterisasi asam oleat dari kulit buah kelapa sawit (Elais guinensis Jacq.). Jurnal Penelitian Farmasi Indonesia, 1(2), pp.47–51.

Nuari, Y. R., Wahyuningsih, I., and Prabawati, S. 2021. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) of piroxicam. Pharmaciana, 11(2), pp.185.

Nurismawati, D. A., and Priani, S. E. 2021. Kajian formulasi dan karakterisasi self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) sebagai penghantar agen antihiperlipidemia Oral. Jurnal Riset Farmasi, 114–123.

Pouton, C. W., and Porter, C. J. H. 2008. Formulation of lipid-based delivery systems for oral administration: materials, methods and strategies. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 60(6), pp.625–637.

Priani, S. E., Nurrayyan, N., and Darusman, F. 2017. Formulation self nano emulsifying drug delivery system glimepiride using oleic acid as oil phase. Pharmaciana, 7(2), pp.267.

Rusdi, M. 2017. Karakteristik ukuran partikel dan indeks polidispersitas formulasi nanoemulsi pewarna alam ekstrak kayu secang. Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu, 5(2) pp.114-127

Sadurní, N., Solans, C., Azemar, N., and García-Celma, M. J. 2005. Studies on the formation of O/W nano-emulsions, by low-energy emulsification methods, suitable for pharmaceutical applications. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 26(5), pp.438–445.

Suciati, T., Aliyandi, A., and Satrialdi. 2014. Development of transdermal nanoemulsion formulation for simultaneous delivery of protein vaccine and artin-m adjuvant. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(6), pp.536–546.

Syukri, Y., Nugroho, B. H., and Istanti, I.2020. Penggunaan D-optimal mixture design untuk optimasi dan formulasi self-nano emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEEDS) asam mefenamat. Jurnal Sains Farmasi and Klinis, 7(3), pp.180.

Tungadi, R., Thomas, N. A., and Gobel, W. G. Van. 2021. Formulasi, karakterisasi, dan evaluasi drops liquid self nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (snedds) astaxanthin. Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 1(3), pp.168–178.

Villar, A.M.S., Naveros, B.C., Campmany, A.C.C., Trenchs, M.A., Rocabert, C.B., and Bellowa, L.H.2012. Design and optimization of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for enhanced dissolution of gemfibrozil. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 431, pp.161-175.

Wahyuningsih, S. I., Yuswanto, A., and Martien, R. 2019. Aktivitas diuretik self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (snedds) furosemid diuretic activity of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (snedds) of furosemide. Farmasains, 4(1), pp.33-38.

Zhang, N., Zhang, F., Xu, S., Yun, K., Wu, W., and Pan, W. 2020. Formulation and evaluation of luteolin supersaturatable self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS) for enhanced oral bioavailability. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology.58.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 45 time(s)
PDF: 39 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.