Narrative Review : Aktivitas Antidiabetes Tanaman Tradisional Di Pulau Jawa

Cita Primada Hari Anugrahini(1), Arifah Sri Wahyuni(2*)

(1) Farmasi, Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Jl. A Yani, Surakarta, Indonesia
(2) Farmasi, Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Jl. A Yani, Surakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus merupakan gangguan metabolisme karbohidrat yang ditandai dengan hiperglikemi yaitu kadar glukosa plasma 2 jam setelah Tes Toleransi Glukosa Oral (TTGO) ≥ 200 mg/dL dan glukosa darah puasa ≥ 126 mg/dL, terjadi karena tubuh kekurangan hormon insulin absolut maupun relatif. Saat ini obat tradisional telah banyak digunakan oleh masyarakat karena mahalnya atau tidak tersedianya obat modern/sintetis dan kepercayaan bahwa obat tradisional lebih aman. Masyarakat Pulau Jawa telah memanfaatkan tanaman tradisional untuk mengobati berbagai macam penyakit, termasuk diabetes mellitus. Penyusunan narrative review ini dengan pencarian artikel dari database google schoolar menggunakan kata kunci “antidiabetic and rats and ethanol and java” dan “plants and secondary metabolites and antidiabetic”. Kriteria inklusi yang ditetapkan adalah artikel yang dipublikasi pada tahun 2014 – 2020 membahas uji in vivo tanaman antidiabetes di Pulau Jawa, senyawa metabolit sekunder yang bertanggung jawab terhadap aktivitas antidiabetes dan dapat diunduh full text. Hasil skrining literature didapatkan 15 tanaman yang memiliki aktivitas antidiabetes karena adanya senyawa metabolit sekunder golongan alkaloid, flavonoid, fenolik, glikosida, dan poliketida yaitu aloe-emodin, aloin, annonaine, artoflavon, asiaticoside, brazilin, charantin, curcumin, dihydromyricetin, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, eugenol, kaempferol, momordicin, morindone, moringine, quercetin-3-O-glucosidase, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside dan 6-gingerol. Senyawa tersebut memiliki mekanisme antidiabetes melalui penghambatan enzim α-glukosidase dan α-amilase, penghambatan enzim DPP-IV, dan peningkatkan translokasi GLUT-1 dan GLUT-4.

Keywords

tidiabetes; tikus; etanol; jawa; tanaman; metabolit sekunder

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