Naning Tri Wahyuni(1*), Endang Fauziati(2), Mauly Hikmah(3)

(*) Corresponding Author


The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of instructional methods based on phonics instruction in reading classes to improve students participation therefore they can develop to their maximum potential. Using qualitative tools of observation, documentation and interview, this research was focusing the inquiry on investigating students’ reception to the phonics instruction model, observing their participation in the classroom activities, also investigating instructional methods which attract students to more actively contribute in learning activities. The finding shows that the reception of students to the model was good and they showed much eagerness in following the program. Further investigation revealed that students keen to participate more in the classroom activities especially in certain activities with the use of sound sheets, sound book, flash card sheets, word box sheets, songs, games and storybooks. However, there were two challenges identified during 16 weeks running the study; the lack of teachers’ skill in delivering this method efficiently also the limited collection of English story books in school. Hence, to improve the effectiveness of the use of phonics instruction in reading classroom, firstly, training for teachers would be needed to deliver the method effectively, secondly, considering the fact that school still have limited collection of English story books or any English books, the collaboration with government agencies or other promising bodies could be done to help in providing more collection of storybooks in school.

Full Text:



Acosta, Richelle L. 2012. An Exploration of Reading Methods in First-Grade: Comparing the Basal Approach and Balanced Literacy: A Dissertation. USA: Louisiana State University.

Adams, M. J. 1990. Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Adams, M. J., R. Treiman, and M. Pressley. 1998. “Reading, writing, and literacy”. In handbook of Child Psychology 4, edited by I. E. Sigel and K. A. Renninger, 275–355. New York: Wiley.

Archer, Jennifer Aby. 2004. Characteristics of an Effective Teacher of Reading in an Elementary School Setting: A Dissertation. USA: Louisiana State University.

Bemhardt, E. E. 1991. Reading Development In a Second Language: Theoretical, Empirical & Classroom Perspectives, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Bloom, B. S. 1980. All Our Children Learning, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Borg, Walter R and Gall, Meredith D. 1983. Educational Research: An Introduction. New York: Longman.

Brooks, G. 1992. What teachers in training are taught about reading: the working paper, NFER Publishing: London.

Bums, A. and Cof n, C. 2001. Analysing English in a Global Context. New York: Rou ege Ltd.

Cambourne, B. L. 2002. In Farstrup, A. E. and S. J. Samuels (eds). Literature-based/constructivist approaches to reading and language arts instruction: What research has to say about reading instruction, 3rd edition, Newark, DE: International Reading Association, pp. 25- 47.

Cameron, Lynne. 2002. Teaching Languages to Young Learners. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Campbell, R. 1992. Reading Real Books, Buckingham. UK: Open University Press.

Chall, J. S. 1996. Learning to Read: The Great Debate. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chall, J. S., and H. M. Popp. 1996. Teaching and Assessing Phonics: A Guide for Teachers. Cambridge, MA: Educator’s publishing service.

Clark Herbert H. and Eve V. Clark. 1977. Psychology and Language. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Chard, D. J., and J. Osborn. 1999. “Phonics and word recognition instruction in early reading programs: Guidelines for accessibility.” Learning Disabilities Research and practice 14 (2): 107–117.

Cohen, L., Manion, L. 2003. Research Methods in Education, 5th Edition. London: Routledge/ Falmer Publication

Collins, J. W., 3rd, & O’Brien, N. P. (Eds.). (2003). Greenwood Dictionary of Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Cullinan, B. E. 1987. Children’s Literature in the Reading Program, Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Cullinan, B. E. 1992. Invitation to Read: More Children’s Literature in the Reading Program, Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Cummins, J. 2003. “Reading and the bilingual student: Fact and Fiction”, In Garcia, G. (ed): Reaching the highest level of English literacy, Newark, DE: International Reading Association, pp. 2-33

Cresswell, J. W. 1994. Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, London: Sage Publications.

Crystal, D. 2003. English as a Global Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ehri, L. 1994. “Development of the ability to read words.” In Theoretical Models and processes of Reading, edited by R. Ruddell, M. Ruddell, and H. Singer. Newark, DE: International Reading Association

Elley, W. B. and Mangubhal, F. 1983. The Impact of reading on second language learning, Reading Research Quarterly, 19: 53-67.

Fauziati, Endang. 2010. Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). Indonesia: Era Pustaka Utama.

Fauziati, Endang. 2009. Introduction to Methods and Approaches in Second or Foreign Language Teaching. Indonesia: Era Pustaka Utama.

Fauziati, Endang. 2009. Readings on Applied Linguistics: A Handbook for Language Teacher and Teacher Researcher. Indonesia: Era Pustaka Utama.

Ferguson, C. 1982. The Other Tongue: English across Cultures. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E., and Hyun, H.H. 2012. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. 8th Edition. America: McGrawHill International Edition.

Gibbons, P. 1993. Learning to Learn in a Second Language, Newtown, NSW: Primary English Teachers Association.

Goodman, K. S. 1985. In Eds. Singer, H. and Robert, B. R., Unity in reading, Theoretical models and the processes of reading, 3rd edition. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Government of Australia, 2005. Teaching reading: A review of the evidence-based research literature on approaches to the teaching of literacy, particularly those that are effective in assisting students with reading dif culties, Canberra: Department of Education Science and Training.

Graham, J. 1990. Pictures on the Page, Sheffield: The National Association for the Teaching of English.

Harmer, Jeremy. 2005. How to Teach English: An Introduction to the Practice of English Language Teaching. Essex: Longman.

Holdaway, D. (1982). Shared book experience: teaching reading using favourite books. Sydney, NSW: Ashton Scholastic.

Hudelson, S. (1994). Literacy development of second language children. In F. Genesse, (Ed.), Educating second language children, pp. 129-158. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hudelson, S. (1990). Bilingual/ESL learners talking in the English classroom. In S. Hynds & D. L. Rubin (Eds.), Perspectives on talk and learning. pp. 267-283, Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English

Hudelson, S. (1996). Children’s Learning and the Design of English Teaching Programs. Pasto: Asocopi.

Holmgren, V. S. (1996). Elementary school counselling: An expanding role. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Kachru, B. 1992. The other Tongue: English across Cultures. Urbana: Illinois Press.

Krashen, S. D. 1996. Every person a reader: An alternative to the California Task Force report

on Reading, Culver City, CA: Language Education Associates.

Kwan, A. B. and Willows, D. M. 1998. Impact of early phonics instruction on children learning

English as a Second Language, Austin, Texas: National Reading Conference

Juel, C. 1994. Learning to Read in One Elementary School. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Juel, C. 1991. “Beginning reading.” In Handbook of Reading Research 2, edited by R. Barr, M. hL. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, and P. D. Pearson. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Lemons, Christopher J. 2008. Exploring the Effectiveness of Phonics-Based Instruction for Children with Down syndrome: A Dissertation. USA: Vanderbilt University

Mathes, P. G. and Torgesen, J. K. 2000. A call for equity in reading instruction for all students: A response to Allington and Woodside-Jiron, Educational Researcher, 29, 4-14.

McGuinness, D. 2004. Early Reading Instruction: What Science Really Tells Us about How to Teach Reading. MIT Press Cambridge, MA. UK.

McKay, S. L. 1993. Agendas for Second Language Literacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McNamara, S. 1999. Differentiation: An Approach to Teaching and Learning. Cambridge: Pearson

Muro, J.J., & Kottman, T. 1995. Guidance and counselling in the elementary and middle schools. Iowa: Brown and Benchmark.

National Reading Panel. 2000. Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-based Assessment of the Scienti c Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Neuman, S. B. and Roskos, K. A. 1998. Children Achieving: Best Practices In Early Literacy. Newark: International Reading Association.

Nunan, D. 1994. Research methods in language learning. CUP.

Nuttall. C. 1996. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language, Oxford: Heinemann Publishing Ltd.

Patton, M. Q. 2002. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. 3rd Edition. London: Sage Publications.

Pearson, D. 1993. Focus on Research: Teaching and Learning Reading (A Research perspective), Language Arts, 502-511

Piaget, J. (1972). The Language and Thought of the Child. Ohio: World Publishing Company

Share, D., and K. E. Stanovich. 1995. “Cognitive processes in early reading development: Accommodating individual differences into a mode of acquisition.” Issues in Education: Contributions for Educational Psychology 1: 1–57.

Silverman, D. 2000. Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook. London: Sage Publications

Smith, F. 1985. Reading. 2nd Edition. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, F. 1994. Understanding Reading. 5th Edition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Edbaum Associates.

Snow, C. E., Bums, M. S. and Gdf n, P. 1998. Preventing Reading Dif culties in Young children, Washington DC: National Academy Press

Stanovich, K. E. 1986. “Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy.” Reading Research Quarterly 21: 360–407.

Thompson, G. B., Tunmer, W. E. and Nicholson, T. 1993. Reading Acquisition Processes. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Torgesen, J. K., R. K. Wagner, and C. A. Rashotte. 1994. “Longitudinal studies of phonological processing and reading.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 27: 276–286.

Vygotsky, L. S. 1978. Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Chapter 6 Interaction between learning and development (79-91). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wahyuni, Naning. 2015. Developing Phonics-Based Combined with Book Reading Program in English Teaching Reading for Young Learners: Research and Development at Al Abidin International Islamic Elementary School Surakarta. A Master Thesis. Muhammdiyah University of Surakarta. Surakarta.

Watson, V. and Morag, S. 1996. Talking pictures: Pictorial texts and young readers. London: Hodder & Stoughton

Wells, G. 1985. The meaning makers: Children learning language and using language to learn. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Wells, D. L., & Langenfeld, G. P. (1999). Creating an Environment for Lifelong Learning. Paper presented at the ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 2563 time(s)
PDF: 2035 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.