Toward Continuous Innovation in Teaching: Reflective Practice on English Teaching of Indonesian and the Philippine Teachers

Mauly Halwat Hikmat(1*), Regina F. Santos(2), Suharyanto Suharyanto(3), Ainurvely Gehandiatie Maudy(4), Khamlan Phommavongsa(5)

(1) Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
(2) Faculty of Education, Pangasinan State University
(3) Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
(4) Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
(5) Faculty of Education, Savannakhet University
(*) Corresponding Author


The ability to reflect on a teacher is critical as part of his/her self-agency to become a professional teacher. This research aimed to compare Indonesian and Philippine teachers' reflection practice on English teaching. The research was focused on 1) the questions teachers of both countries ask as the reflection in their Teaching, 2) their perceptions about their reflection of their teaching practice, and 3) their follow-up on the reflection. The participants in this study were 16 English teachers in the Philippines and 30 teachers in Indonesia. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and observations and analyzed through inductive analysis techniques. The study revealed a slight difference in the focus of the reflective questions asked by the Philippine and Indonesian teachers. Indonesian teachers focus more on the students’ learning, while Philippine teachers do self-reflection. However, both countries' teachers thought reflection was important for their professional development. The structured reflection practice will likely help teachers of both countries plan their professional development and innovation in teaching practice.


innovation in teaching; professional development reflective practice; self-agency

Full Text:



Akbari, Behzadpoor & Dadvand, (2010). De-velopment of English Language Teaching Reflection Inventory System: An Interna-tional Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, v38 n2 p211-227 Jun 2010.

Bandura, A. (1997). The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman.

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (Vol. 5, pp. 307-337). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publis-hing.

Benade (2015) Teachers’ Critical Reflective Practice in the Context of Twenty-first Century Learning, Open Review of Edu-cational Research, 2:1, 42-54, DOI: 10.1080/23265507.2014.998159 To link to this article:

Brookfield, S. D. (2011). Becoming a Criti-cally Reflective Teacher, Second Edition. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.

Bullock, S. M. (2009). Becoming a Teacher Educator: The Self as a Basis-for-Knowing. In K. Pithouse, C. Mitchell, & L. Moletsane (Eds.), Making Connec-tions: Self-study and Social Change (pp. 269–283). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience & Education. New York, NY: Kappa Delta Pi. ISBN 0-684-83828-1.

De Vera, (2020). Challenges and Tea-cher Resilience: The New Normal Class-room Instruction Using Social Media in Context ON 1 READS 23,972 1 author: Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Webinar View project Jayson Luciano De Vera Normal University.

Duff, Patricia. (2012).Identity, agency, and second language acquisition. The Routle-dge Handbook of Second Language Ac-quisition. London: Routledge.

Frazier, C. L., and Eick, C. (2015) “Approa-ches to critical reflection: written and vi-deo journaling” Reflective Practice, Vo-lume 25, 575-594.

Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Me-thods. Oxford: Oxford Further Education Unit.

Guoyuan, Sang (2020). Teacher Agency. En-cyclopedia of Teacher Education DOI:10.1007/978-981-13-1179-6_271-1: Springer Nature Singapore.

Gurney, L. (2015). EAP teachers’ concep-tions of and interactions with professional development: A phenomenographic in-vestigation (Unpublished doctoral disser-tation), Deakin University, Melbourne.

Hamilton, M. L., and Pinnegar, S. (2015). Knowing, Becoming, Doing as Teacher Educators: Identity, Intimate Scholarship, and Inquiry (Vol. 26). Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Izadinia, M. (2014). Teacher Educators’ Iden-tity: A Review of Literature. European Journal of Teacher Education, 37(4), Oc-tober 2014. DOI: 10.1080/02619768.2014.947025.

John Dewey. (1933). How We Think: A Res-tatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the Educative Process. Bos-ton, MA: D.C. Heath & Co Publishers. (2014) Validity and Reliability of Two Instruments to Measure Reflection: A Confirmatory Study. Trames Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 18(2): 121-134 DOI: 10.3176/tr.2014.2.02.

Khanam, Afifa. (2019). Effect of Reflective Teaching Practices on the Performance of Prospective Teachers. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology. Cor-pus ID: 192646342

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Larrivee, B. (2008). Development of a Tool to Assess Teachers’ Level of Reflective Practice. Reflective Practice, 9 (3): 341-360.

La Sunra, Haryanto and Sahril Nur. (2020). Teachers’ Reflective Practice and Chal-lenges in an Indonesian EFL Secondary School Classroom. International Journal of Language Education.Vol 4, Number 2, 2020, pp. 289-300 Doi:

Lasky, Sue. (2005). A Sociocultural Appro-ach To Understanding Teacher Identity, Agency And Professional Vulnerability In A Context Of Secondary School Re-form. Teaching and Teacher Education 21(8):899-916. DOI:10.1016/j.tate.2005.06.003.

Martel, J. (2018). Three Foreign Language Student Teachers’ Experiences with Con-tent-Based Instruction: Exploring the Identity/Innovation Interface. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, Vol. 12, Issue 4, October 2018, 303-315.

Maulid, Maulid Jumanne (2017) Accountabi-lity in Education Management: The Effi-cient Use of Fiscal Resources in Tanza-nia. PhD thesis, University of York.

Mesa. M. L. O. (2018). Reflective Teaching: An Approach to Enrich the English Tea-ching Professional Practice. HOW Jour-nal, 25(2), 149-170.

Niones, S. M. M. (2018). Perception Theory on Reflective Teaching. International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences, 3(6), 1026–1031.

Nurkamto and Sarosa (2020). EFL Teachers in Reflective Practice as A Way to Pursue Sustained Professional Development. In-ternational Journal of Pedagogy and Tea-cher Education (IJPTE) (Vol. 4 Issue 1 | April 2020) PAPER |55 e-ISSN: 2549-8525 | p-ISSN: 2597-7792 Page.

Oktavia, Della (2021). Assessment Deve-lopment to Measure Science Process Skills on the Interaction of Living Things with Their Environment in Junior High School. Jurnal IAIN Ponorogo, Vol 2, No 2, 2021.

Peercy, M. M., and Sharkey, J. (2018). Mis-sing a S-STEP? How self-study of tea-cher education practice can support the language teacher education knowledge base. Language Teaching Research, 1–11.

Priestley, M., Edwards, R., Priestley, A., & Miller, K. (2012). Teacher Agency in Curriculum Making: Agents of Change and Spaces for Maneuver. Curriculum Inquiry, 42, 191-214.

Rahman, B. (2014). Refleksi Diri dan Pe-ningkatan Profesionalisme Guru. Jurnal Pedagogia, Vol. 1, 2014. FKIP UNS.

Reynolds (2011). Reflective practice: origins and interpretations. A Lancaster Univer-sity Management School, Lancaster, UK Online publication date: 21 March 2011.

Schön, D.A. (1984) The Reflective Practitio-ner: How Professionals Think in Action. Vol. 5126, Basic Books.

Schön, D.A. (1991). The Reflective Practitio-ner: How Professionals Think in Action. London: Temple.

Schunk, D. H., & Meece, J. L. (2006). Self-Efficacy Development in Adolescence. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (pp. 71–96). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Shalabi, M., Almuqati, A. N., and Sameem, M. (2018). Reflective teaching as a prac-tical approach. Journal of Literature, Lan-guages and Linguistics, 43: 40-48.

Taylor, S. J., and Bogdan, R. (1984). Introdu-ction to qualitative research methods: The search for meanings. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Timperley, H. Wiseman, J. Fung, I. (2003). The Sustainability of Professional Deve-lopment in Literacy, Part 2. Final report to the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Education, Wellington, New Zealand.

Ulla, M. B., Barrera, K. B., & Acompanado, M. M. (2017). Classroom Teachers as Researchers: Teachers’ Perceptions, Mo-tivations, and Challenges. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 42(11).

Valdez, P.N., Navera, J.A. & Esteron, J.J. (2018) What is Reflective Teaching? Les-sons Learned from ELT Teachers from the s. Asia-Pacific Edu Res 27, 91–98.

Yang, Hongzhi and Miao Pei (2019). Deve-loping teacher agency and self-regulation in a professional training program: a case study in a rural and ethnic minority area of China. Asia Pacific Education Review 20(1). DOI:10.1007/s12564-019-09606-z.

Zahid, M., and Khanam, A. (2019). Effect of Reflective Teaching Practices on the Per-formance of Prospective Teachers. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – January 2019, volume 18 issue 1.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 302 time(s)
PDF: 312 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.