IMPAS: Modification of the PAS Questionnaire to Measure Attitudes of High School Students towards Physics in Indonesia

Fatah Kurniawan(1*), Achmad Samsudin(2), Didi Teguh Chandra(3), Endang Sriwati(4), Bayram Coştu(5)

(1) Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
(2) Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
(3) Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
(4) Senior High School of Malang
(5) Department of Science Education, Yildiz Technical University
(*) Corresponding Author


This study aims to develop an instrument that measures students' attitudes toward physics ang to test its validity and reliability. This instrument was a result of a modification from the PAS Questionnaire, namely IMPAS. This research novelty is making a new instrument that solves the shortcomings in PAS Questionnaire. So, this instrument can be used by teachers and researcers in Indonesia. The target of this IMPAS Questionnaire will be high school students in Indonesia. Using the ADDIE research model, the IMPAS Questionnaire was successfully developed and tested on 156 high school students. The IMPAS Questionnaire consists of 24 positive, negative, neutral positive, and neutral negative statements. The results of the CVR analysis and the Rasch model provide an understanding that the IMPAS Questionnaire has good content and construct validity. So, the IMPAS Questionnaire can be stated to have the ability to measure students' attitudes toward physics accurately. In addition, the results of the Rasch model analysis provide an understanding that the IMPAS Questionnaire has a moderate person reliability, excellent item reliability, and good internal consistency. Therefore, the IMPAS Questionnaire can be stated to have sufficient consistency in measuring students' attitudes toward physics. Thus, the development of an instrument to measure students' attitudes toward physics has been done successfully. Hopefully, this research can contribute to Indonesian education, especially to physics teachers and physics education researchers.


ADDIE; attitude instrument; attitude toward physics; rasch model analysis; rasch Rating Scale Model (RSM)

Full Text:



Adams, D., Sumintono, B., Mohamed, A., & Noor, N. S. M. (2018). E-learning readiness among students of diverse backgrounds in a leading Malaysian higher education institution. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 15(2).

Adams, W. K., Perkins, K. K., Podolefsky, N. S., Dubson, M., Finkelstein, N. D., & Wieman, C. E. (2006). New instrument for measuring student beliefs about physics and learning physics: The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey. Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research, 2(1).

Alabi, A. T., & Jelili, M. O. (2022). Clarifying likert scale misconceptions for improved application in urban studies. Quality and Quantity.

Al-Derbashi, K. Y. (2017). The Effect of the Flipped Classroom Strategy on Eleventh Grade Students’ Understanding of Physics and Their Attitudes Towards Physics in Tonnb Secondary School in the UAE. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(29).

Aşiksoy, G., & Islek, D. (2017). The impact of the virtual laboratory on students’ attitudes in a general physics laboratory. International Journal of Online Engineering, 13(4).

Asrial, A., Syahrial, S., Kurniawan, D. A., Subandiyo, M., & Amalina, N. (2019). Exploring obstacles in language learning among prospective primary school teacher. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 8(2).

Astalini, A., Darmaji, D., Pathoni, H., Kurniawan, W., Jufrida, J., Kurniawan, D. A., & Perdan, R. (2019). Motivation and Attitude of Students on Physics Subject in the Middle School in Indonesia. International Education Studies, 12(9).

Astalini, Kurniawan, D. A., Darmaji, Sholihah, L. R., & Perdana, R. (2019). Characteristics of students’ attitude to Physics in Muaro Jambi High School. Humanities and Social Sciences Reviews, 7(2).

Awaludin, A., Prayitno, H. J., & Haq, M. I. (2022). Using Digital Media During the COVID-19 Pandemic Era: Good Online Program in Higher Education. Indonesian Journal on Learning and Advanced Education (IJOLAE), 5(1).

Bedemo, S. (2020). Effects of Problem Based Learning on Students’ Achievement and Attitude Towards Physics (Mechanics): The Case of Gilgel Beles College of Teachers Education. Science Journal of Education, 8(3).

Bond, T. G., Yan, Z., & Heene, M. (2020). Applying the rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences. In Applying the Rasch Model: Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences.

Boone, W. J., & Staver, J. R. (2020). Correction to: Advances in Rasch Analyses in the Human Sciences. In Advances in Rasch Analyses in the Human Sciences.

Brann, K. L., Boone, W. J., Splett, J. W., Clemons, C., & Bidwell, S. L. (2021). Development of the School Mental Health Self-Efficacy Teacher Survey Using Rasch Analysis. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 39(2).

Buabeng, I., Conner, L., & Winter, D. (2015). The Lack of Physics Teachers: “Like a Bath with the Plug out and the Tap half on.” American Journal of Educational Research, 3(6).

Capriconia, J., & Mufit, F. (2022). Analysis of Concept Understanding and Students’ Attitudes towards Learning Physics in Material of Straight Motion. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 8(3).

ÇERMİK, H., & KARA, İ. (2020). Physics Course Attitudes Scale for High School Students: A Validity and Reliability Study. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education.

Chappuis, J., & Stiggins, R. J. (2019). Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Pearson New International Edition: Doing It Right - Using It Well. In Assessment.

Christidou, V. (2011). Interest, attitudes and images related to science: Combining students’ voices with the voices of school Science, teachers, and popular science. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 6(2).

Chyung, S. Y. Y., Roberts, K., Swanson, I., & Hankinson, A. (2017). Evidence-Based Survey Design: The Use of a Midpoint on the Likert Scale. Performance Improvement, 56(10).

Croasmun, J. T., & Ostrom, L. (2011). Using Likert-Type Scales in the Social Sciences. Journal of Adult Education, 40(1).

Deieso, D., & Fraser, B. J. (2019). Learning environment, attitudes and anxiety across the transition from primary to secondary school mathematics. Learning Environments Research, 22(1).

DeVellis, R. F. (2016). Scale Development Theory and Applications (Fourth Edition). SAGE Publication, 4.

Giyoto, G., Prayitno, H. J., Inderasari, E., Santoso, T., Salam, A. A. N., & Alfisyahri, K. A. N. (2022). A Lessons in Pandemic Autonomous Learning Conflicts of Communicative Methods in English Curriculum 2013 along COVID-19 in Indonesia. Randwick International of Education and Linguistics Science Journal, 3(4).

Gupta, M., & Sukamto, K. (2020). Cultural Communicative Styles: The Case of India and Indonesia. International Journal of Society, Culture & Language, 8(2), 105–120.

Halim, L., Abd Rahman, N., Zamri, R., & Mohtar, L. (2018). The roles of parents in cultivating children’s interest towards science learning and careers. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 39(2), 190–196.

Halloun, I., & Hestenes, D. (1998). Interpreting VASS dimensions and profiles for physics students. Science and Education, 7(6).

Hamidah, M. H., & Wulandari, S. S. (2021). PENGEMBANGAN INSTRUMEN PENILAIAN BERBASIS HOTS MENGGUNAKAN APLIKASI “QUIZIZZ.” Efisiensi : Kajian Ilmu Administrasi, 18(1).

Herman, Shara, A. M., Silalahi, T. F., Sherly, & Julyanthry. (2022). Teachers’ Attitude towards Minimum Competency Assessment at Sultan Agung Senior High School in Pematangsiantar, Indonesia. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 11(1).

Hermita, N., Putra, Z. H., Alim, J. A., Wijaya, T. T., Anggoro, S., & Diniya, D. (2021). Elementary Teachers’ Perceptions on Genially Learning Media Using Item Response Theory (IRT). Indonesian Journal on Learning and Advanced Education (IJOLAE), 4(1).

Ishartono, N., Desstya, A., Prayitno, H. J., & Sidiq, Y. (2021). The Quality of HOTS-Based Science Questions Developed by Indonesian Elementary School Teachers. Journal of Education Technology, 5(2).

Ishartono, N., Nurcahyo, A., Waluyo, M., Prayitno, H. J., & Hanifah, M. (2022). Integrating GeoGebra into the flipped learning approach to improve students’ self-regulated learning during the covid-19 pandemic. Journal on Mathematics Education, 13(1).

Islam, Md. T., & Habib, T. I. (2021). Barriers of Adopting Online Learning Among the University Students in Bangladesh During Covid-19. Indonesian Journal on Learning and Advanced Education (IJOLAE), 4(1).

Jüttner, M., Boone, W., Park, S., & Neuhaus, B. J. (2013). Development and use of a test instrument to measure biology teachers’ content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 25(1).

Juuti, K., & Lavonen, J. (2016). How teaching practices are connected to student intention to enrol in upper secondary school physics courses. Research in Science and Technological Education, 34(2).

Kaur, D., & Zhao, Y. (2017). Development of Physics Attitude Scale (PAS): An Instrument to Measure Students’ Attitudes Toward Physics. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 26(5).

Khine, M. S. (2020). Rasch measurement: Applications in quantitative educational research. In Rasch Measurement: Applications in Quantitative Educational Research.

Kurniawan, D. A., Perdana, R., & Kurniasari, D. (2018). Identification of student attitudes toward physics learning at Batanghari District high school. The Educational Review, USA, 2(9), 475–484.

Kyado, J., Achor, E. E., & Gbadamosi, O. (2021). Effect of Brain-Based Learning Strategy on Students’ Attitude Towards Physics in Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria. BSU Journal of Science ….


Linacre, J. M. (1999). Investigating rating scale category utility. Journal of Outcome Measurement, 3(2).

Maison, Tant, T., Kurniawan, D. A., Sukarni, W., Erika, & Hoyi, R. (2021). Assessing students’ attitudes towards physics through the application of inquiry and jigsaw cooperative learning models in high schools. International Journal of Instruction, 14(4).

Mufida, S. N., Kaniawati, I., Samsudin, A., & Suhendi, E. (2022). Developing MOFI on Transverse Wave to Explore Students’ Misconceptions Today: Utilizing Rasch Model Analysis. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IP, 8(5), 2499–2507.

Mumu, J., Tanujaya, B., Charitas, R., & Prahmana, I. (2022). Likert Scale in Social Sciences Research: Problems and Difficulties. FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 16(4).

Mutohhari, F., Sutiman, S., Nurtanto, M., Kholifah, N., & Samsudin, A. (2021). Difficulties in implementing 21st century skills competence in vocational education learning. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 10(4).

OECD. (2019). OECD Multilingual Summaries PISA 2018 Results (Volume I ) What Students Know and Can Do. OECD Publishing, I(Volume I).

Omasits, C. J., & Wagner, D. J. (2006). Investigating the validity of the MPEX survey. AIP Conference Proceedings, 818.

Oon, P. T., & Subramaniam, R. (2010). Views of physics teachers on how to address the declining enrolment in physics at the university level. Research in Science and Technological Education, 28(3).

Oral, I., & Erkilic, M. (2022). Investigating the 21st -Century Skills of Undergraduate Students: Physics Success, Attitude, and Perception. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 19(1).

Oymak, O., & Ogan-Bekiroglu, F. (2021). Comparison of students’ learning and attitudes in physical versus virtual manipulatives using inquiry-based instruction. IAFOR Journal of Education, 9(4).

Parmin, P., Diah Pamelasari, S., & Rahayu, S. (2021). The Effect of Scientific Terms Error on Scientific Communication of Prospective Teachers and Progressive Education. Indonesian Journal on Learning and Advanced Education (IJOLAE), 3(3).

Pratama, A., & Sumardi, M. S. (2022). Contextual Teaching and Learning Using Local Content Material on Students’ Reading Comprehension at a Junior High School in Indonesia. SALEE: Study of Applied Linguistics and English Education, 3(2).

Ratih, K., Syah, M. F. J., Nurhidayat, N., Jarin, S., & Buckworth, J. (2021). Learning Patterns during the Disruptive Situation in Informal Education: Parents’ Efforts and Challenges in the Adjustment of Progressive Learning. Indonesian Journal on Learning and Advanced Education (IJOLAE), 3(3).

Samsudin, A., Cahyani, P. B., Purwanto, Rusdiana, D., Efendi, R., Aminudin, A. H., & Coştu, B. (2021). Development of a multitier open-ended work and energy instrument (MOWEI) using Rasch analysis to identify students’ misconceptions. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 16(1).

Samsudin, A., Rusdiana, D., Efendi, R., Fratiwi, N. J., Aminudin, A. H., & Adimayuda, R. (2021). Development of Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) Strategy Assisted by Rebuttal Texts on Newton’s Law Material with Rasch Analysis. Tadris: Jurnal Keguruan Dan Ilmu Tarbiyah, 6(1).

Santrock, J. W. (2018). Educational psychology, 6th ed. In McGraw-Hill Education.

Shi, Y., Gugiu, P. C., Crowe, R. P., & Way, D. P. (2019). A Rasch Analysis Validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Student Survey with Preclinical Medical Students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 31(2).

Sirbu, A. (2015). Language As a Tool of Communication. ResearchGate, 18(2).

Solikhah, B. (2014). An Application of Theory of Planned Behavior towards CPA Career in Indonesia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 164.

Sumintono, B., & Widhiarso, W. (2014). Aplikasi model Rasch untuk penelitian ilmu-ilmu sosial (edisi revisi). Trim Komunikata Publishing House.

Sumintono, B., & Widhiarso, W. (2015). Aplikasi pemodelan Rasch pada assessment pendidikan. Trim Komunikata.

Susilowati, N. E., Muslim, M., Efendi, R., & Samsudin, A. (2022). Pisa 2021 Creative Thinking Instrument for Students: Physics Teachers’ Perceptions. Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 5(2).

Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. In International journal of medical education (Vol. 2).

Tian, Y., Wang, L., Xu, Y., & He, Z. (2021). The Development of Chinese Version of Transcultural Nursing Self-Efficiency Scale: Using Rasch Model Analysis. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 32(1).

Tytler, R. (2014). Attitudes, identity, and aspirations toward science. In Handbook of Research on Science Education, Volume II.

Umar, N. F., Sinring, A., Pandang, A., & Anas, M. (2022). Career Self-Management Scale (CEDLE scale) in the Indonesian Version of The Social Cognitive Model. INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES (IJES), 25(1), 10–20.

Walberg, H. J. (1976). 4: Psychology of Learning Environments: Behavioral, Structural, or Perceptual? Review of Research in Education, 4(1).

Walker, A. A., & Wind, S. A. (2020). Identifying Misfitting Achievement Estimates in Performance Assessments: An Illustration Using Rasch and Mokken Scale Analyses. International Journal of Testing, 20(3).

Wenning, C. J., & Vieyra, R. E. (2020). Teaching High School Physics: Interacting with Physics Students. In AAPT Physics Education.

Yuliarsih, Y., & Sy, E. N. S. (2022). The Effect of E-Learning as Media in Teaching Reading: Quasi-Experimental Design at Wachid Hasyim Senior High School Pamekasan Regency, Indonesia. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 9(9), 224–230.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 222 time(s)
PDF: 139 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.