The mediating effect of students’ attitude to student career aspiration and mathematics achievement

Quiliano Jr Gonzales Oracion(1*), Ivy Lyt Sumugat Abina(2)

(1) Senior High School Department, San Pedro College, Philippines
(2) College of Education, University of Southeastern Philippines, Philippines
(*) Corresponding Author


Mathematics low achievement has undeniably been found in both national examinations and international assessments. An educator needs to be aware and determine the factors in students’ achievement. However, there were no observable studies focusing on the mediating effect of students' attitudes toward career aspiration and academic achievement. With this, it aims to determine the mediating effect of students’ attitudes on students’ career aspirations and academic achievement in learning Mathematics in a higher educational institution in the Davao Region.  The researcher utilized sets of adopted and self-made test questionnaires to gather data from the 199 respondents.  In analyzing the data, the researcher performed descriptive statistics, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, and Regression Analysis as statistical tools. These analyses indicated that students have a high level of career aspiration, a satisfactory level of academic achievement, an average level of attitude towards mathematics, and an insignificant relationship between students’ career aspirations and academic achievement. The relationship between the student’s attitude and career aspiration is significant. The latter is the only relationship that is significant among all steps, and thus full and partial mediation analysis will not be warranted. Based on the findings, the students must be responsible for helping themselves to make an efficient move in developing their aspiration to have a considerable positive attitude in learning mathematics.


Attitudes, aspiration towards learning, academic achievement, mediating effect

Full Text:



Abu-Hilal, M. M. (2000). A structural model of attitudes towards school subjects, academic aspiration and achievement. Educational Psychology, 20(1), 75-84.

Aduda, D (2003). Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education, Examination Results Released by Minister of Education. Daily Nation, Nairobi: Nation Media Group Ltd.

Agcopra, S. A. (2009). Attitudinal factors and mathematical learning ability. ADDU-SAS Graduate School Research Journal, 5(1), 1-1.

Archer, L., Dawson, E., DeWitt, J., Seakins, A., & Wong, B. (2015). “Science capital”: A conceptual, methodological, and empirical argument for extending bourdieusian notions of capital beyond the arts. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 52(7), 922-948.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) & McLennan, W. (1999). An Introduction to Sample Surveys: A User's Guide. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).

Ajzen, Icek (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 50 (2), 179–211.

Ballado-Tan, J. (2014). Academic performance, aspirations, attitudes and study habits as determinants of the performance in licensure examination of accountancy graduates. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(12), 61-70.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 1173-1182.

Beers, B. (2020). What Regression Measures. Retrieved from

Bøe M.V., & Henriksen E.K. (2015) Expectancy-value perspectives on choice of science and technology education in late-modern societies. In Henriksen E., Dillon J., Ryder J. (eds) Understanding Student Participation and Choice in Science and Technology Education. Springer, Dordrecht.

Bohner, G., & Dickel, N. (2011). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology, 62(1), 391–417. https://doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131609

Casinillo, L. F., &Aure, M. R. K. L. (2018). Econometric Evidence on Academic Performance in Basic Calculus of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Senior High Students. Journal of Educational and Human Resource Development, 6, 238-249.

Coulacoglou, C., & Saklofske, D. H. (t). Validity. Psychometrics and Psychological Assessment, 45-66.

Creed, P. A., Conlon, E. G., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2007). Career barriers and reading ability as correlates of career aspirations and expectations of parents and their children. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(2), 242 258.

Cuy, N. A., & Salinas, E. M. (2019). Aspiration and Readiness of Filipino Senior High School Students in Pursuing College Degree. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7(05), 143.

Department of Education. (2018). DepEd, DOST ink pact to further Science, Math education of teachers, learners. Retrieved from

Department of Education. (2018). Implementing Guidelines on the Conduct of Remedial and Advancement Classes During Summer for the K to 12 Basic Education Program. Retrieved from

Dela Cruz, M. (2017). Science education and a thinking society. Retrieved from

DeWitt, J., Archer, L., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2011). High aspirations but low progression: The science aspirations–careers paradox amongst minority ethnic students. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9(2), 243-271.

Dwivedi, V. (2012). Relationship between level of aspiration and achievement in social sciences. International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences (IJREISS), 2(2), 61-66.

Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Harcourt brace Jovanovich college publishers.

Edokpayi, J. N., & Suleiman, M. A. (2011). Students integrated science achievement as a predictor of later achievement in chemistry: A case study among selected secondary schools in Zaria metropolis. Archives of applied Science Research, 3 (4), 527-535.

Garibaldi, L. (2002). Note on FAO activities related to fishery statistical development. Proceedings of the FAO/SEAFDEC Regional Training Workshop on the Use of Statistics and Other Information for Stock Assessment. Retrieved from

Gorard, S., See, B. H., & Davies, P. (2012). The impact of attitudes and aspirations on educational attainment and participation. Retrieved from

Gravemeijer, K., Stephan, M., Julie, C., Lin, F. L., & Ohtani, M. (2017). What mathematics education may prepare students for the society of the future?.International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 15(1), 105-123.

Gregor, M. A., & O’Brien, K. M. (2015). Understanding Career Aspirations Among Young Women: Improving Instrumentation The Journal of Career Assessment.

Harris, D., Black, L., Hernandez-Martinez, P., Pepin, B., Williams, J., & with the TransMathsTeam. (2015). Mathematics and its value for engineering students: what are the implications for teaching? International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 46(3), 321-336.

Ingram, N. (2015). Students' relationships with mathematics: Affect and identity. Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia.

Jaen, M. C. A., & Baccay, E. S. (2016). Curiosity, motivation, attitude, gender, and mathematics performance. The Normal Lights, 10(2), 89-103.

Jolejole-Caube, C., Dumlao, A. B., & Abocejo, F. T. (2019). Anxiety towards mathematics and mathematics performance of grade 7 learners. European Journal of Education Studies.

Kainthola, R. (2016). Academic achievement and occupational aspiration of secondary level students in relation to their self-esteem and socio-economic status. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Kumaun University, Nainital

Kasimu, O., &Imoro, M. (2017). Students‟ attitudes towards mathematics: the case of private and public Junior High Schools in the East Mamprusi District, Ghana. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME), 7(5), 38-43.

Khattab, N. (2015). Students’ aspirations, expectations and school achievement: What really matters?. British Educational Research Journal, 41(5), 31-748.

Kim, B. (2016). Introduction to mediation analysis. University of Virginia Library Research Data Services + Sciences. Retrieved from

Lapointe-Shaw, L., Bouck, Z., Howell, N. A., Lange, T., Orchanian-Cheff, A., Austin, P. C., ... & Bell, C. M. (2018). Mediation analysis with a time-to-event outcome: a review of use and reporting in healthcare research. BMC medical research methodology, 18(1), 1-12. https://doi:10.1186/s12874-018-0578-7

Langoban, M. (2020). What Makes Mathematics Difficult as a Subject for most Students inHigher Education? International Journal of English and Education,9(3), 214-220.

Langat, A. C. (2015). Students’ attitudes and their effects on learning and achievement in Mathematics: A Case study of public secondary schools in Kiambu County, Kenya. Unpublished a Research Project, submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Education of Kenyatta University.

Leedy, P. D., & Ormrod, J. E. (2010). Practical research (Vol. 108). Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Custom.

MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation Analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58(1), 593–614.

Maio, G. R., Haddock, G., & Verplanken, B. (2018). The psychology of attitudes and attitude change. Sage Publication.

Mazana, Y. M., Suero Montero, C., & Olifage, C. R. (2019). Investigating students' attitude towards learning mathematics. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14 (1), 207-231.

Mensah, J. K., Okyere, M., & Kuranchie, A. (2013). Student attitude towards mathematics and performance: Does the teacher attitude matter. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(3), 132-139.

Mohamed, L., & Waheed, H. (2011). Secondary students’ attitude towards mathematics in a selected school of Maldives. International Journal of humanities and social science, 1(15), 277-281.

Mujtaba, T., Sheldrake, R., Reiss, M. J., & Simon, S. (2018). Students’ science attitudes, beliefs, and context: associations with science and chemistry aspirations. International Journal of Science Education, 40(6), 644-667.

Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Goh, S., & Cotter, K. (Eds.) (2016). TIMSS 2015 Encyclopedia: Education Policy and Curriculum in Mathematics and Science. Retrieved from Boston College, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center. Retrieved from

Mutai, J. K. (2011). Attitudes towards learning and performance in mathematics among students in selected secondary schools in Bureti district, Kenya. [Master’s Thesis, Kenyatta University]. Kenyatta University Institutional Repository.

National Research Council. (2013). The mathematical sciences in 2025. National Academies Press.

Narad, A., & Abdullah, B. (2016). Academic performance of senior secondary school students: Influence of parental encouragement and school environment. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities Special Issue, 3(2), 12-19.

Ndirangu, C. W., Nyagah, G. M., & Kimani, G. N. (2017). The level of implementation of ASEI/PDSI classroom practices in science subjects: A case of SMASSE project, Kenya. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 16(5).

Nicolas, C. A. T., & Emata, C. Y. (2018). An integrative approach through reading comprehension to enhance problem solving skills of grade 7 mathematics students. International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education (formerly CAL-laborate International), 26(3).

Peteros, E., Columna, D., Etcuban, J. O., Almerino Jr, P., & Almerino, J. G. (2019). Attitude and academic achievement of high school students in mathematics under the conditional cash transfer program. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(3), 583-597.

Poudel, T. N., & Maharjan, R. K. (2017). Association between the level of aspiration and achievement of students of secondary Level. Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 4(2), 55-67.

Rabgay, T. (2015). A study of factors influencing students’ academic performance in a Higher secondary school in Bhutan. Rabsel-the CERD Educational Journal, 16.

Regan, E., & DeWitt, J. (2014). Attitudes, interest and factors influencing STEM enrolment behaviour: An overview of relevant literature. Understanding Student Participation and Choice in Science and Technology Education, 63–88.

Sanchal, A., & Sharma, S. (2017). Students’ attitudes towards learning mathematics: Impact of teaching in a sporting context. Teachers and Curriculum, 17 (1), 89–99.

Scheibelhofer, E. (2017). Shifting migration aspirations in second modernity. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(6), 999–1014.

Schleicher, A. (2019). PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations. OECD Publishing.

Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and non experimental studies: new procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7, 422-445.

Tan, D. A. & Cordova, C. (2018). Mathematics Proficiency, Attitude and Performance of Grade 9 Students in Private High School in Bukidnon, Philippines‖. Asian Academic Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 5(2), 103-116.

The Manila Times (2014). Passions run low for math, science. Retreived from

Tudy, R. A. (2014). Attitude, self-efficacy and students’ academic performance inmathematics. IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences. v12i1, 920.

Udoukpong, B. E., Emah, I. E., & Umoren, S. E. (2012). Student attitudes, parental influence and career aspirations in academic achievement in entrepreneurial curriculum. Academic Research International, 2(1), 527.

Villaver, L. (2014). Experiential Learning Approach, Effects on the Mathematics Performance and Attitude. [Master’s Thesis, Central Mindanao University].

Wang, M. T. (2012). Educational and career interests in math: A longitudinal examination of the links between classroom environment, motivational beliefs, and interest. Developmental psychology, 48(6), 1643.

Yara, P. (2009). Students attitude towards mathematics and academic achievement insome selected secondary schools in Southwestern Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research. 36. 336-341.

Zakaria, E., & Salleh, T. S. (2015). Using Technology in Learning Integral Calculus. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(5), 144. https://doi:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n5s1p144

Zan, R. and Martino, P. D. (2007). Attitudes toward Mathematics: Overcoming positive/negative dichotomy. The Montana Mathematics Enthusiasts Monograph, 3, 157-168.

Ziegler, G. M., & Loos, A. (2017). “What is Mathematics?” and why we should ask, where one should experience and learn that, and how to teach it. In Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education (pp. 63-77). Springer, Cham.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 2568 time(s)
PDF: 1462 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.