GeoGebra-based flipped learning model: An alternative panacea to improve student’s learning independency in online mathematics learning

Naufal Ishartono(1*), Adi Nurcahyo(2), Mohamad Waluyo(3), Rafiza Abdul Razak(4), Suliadi Firdaus Sufahani(5), Millenia Hanifah(6)

(1) Department of Mathematics Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muammadiyah Surakarta
(2) Department of Mathematics Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
(3) Department of Mathematics Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
(4) Department of Curriculum and Instructional Technology, University of Malaya
(5) Department of Mathematics, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
(6) Department of Mathematics Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Previous studies have tried to improve students' independence in online mathematics learning. However, the Flipped Learning model integrated with GeoGebra is scarce as none of the existing syntaxes accommodate the model. As the existing syntax is based on three phases: pre-class activity, in-class activity, and post-class activity. This research aims to develop GeoGebra-based Flipped Learning syntax to increase students' independence in learning mathematics. The main difference between the existing syntax and the developed one is the integration of GeoGebra in the pre-class activity. The integration is based on previous studies showing that using GeoGebra can improve student’s learning achievements. It research employed the Design-Based Research (DBR) model involving 125 second-year undergraduate students of a private university in Indonesia. The syntax results were obtained from the study, indicating an increase in the average value of student independence in learning mathematics based on learning independence, confidence, level of discipline, sense of responsibility, level of initiative, and self-control. This developed syntax is expected to help teachers streamline online mathematics learning.


GeoGebra, Flipped Learning, Learning Independency.

Full Text:



Agra, G., Formiga, N. S., Oliveira, P. S. de, Costa, M. M. L., Fernandes, M. das G. M., & Nóbrega, M. M. L. da. (2019). Analysis of the concept of Meaningful Learning in light of the Ausubel’s Theory. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 72(1), 248–255.

Andriani, T., Ulya, N. H. A., Alfiana, T. P., Solicha, S., Hafsari, S. B. A., & Ishartono, N. (2022). Improving Student’s Critical Thinking Skill in Mathematics Through Geogebra-Based Flipped Learning During Pandemi Covid-19: an Experimental Study. Journal of Medives: Journal of Mathematics Education IKIP Veteran Semarang, 6(1), 49.

Armstrong, M., Dopp, C., & Welsh, J. (1992). Design-Based Research. Open Textbook Networks. design_based_research

Arnold, P., & Pfannkuch, M. (2019). Posing Comparative Statistical Investigative Questions. In Topics and Trends in Current Statistics Education Research (pp. 173–195). Springer International Publishing.

Atmojo, S. E., Muhtarom, T., & Lukitoaji, B. D. (2020). The level of self-regulated learning and self-awareness in science learning in the covid-19 pandemic era. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(4), 512–520.

Ausubel, D. P., & Fitzgerald, D. (1961). The role of discriminability in meaningful learning and retention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 52(5), 266.

Banditvilai, C. (2016). Enhancing Students’ Language Skills through Blended Learning. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 14(3), 220–229.

Bao, L. (2006). Theoretical comparisons of average normalized gain calculations. American Journal of Physics, 74(10), 917–922.

Batubara, I. H. (2019). Improving Student’s Critical Thinking Ability Through Guided Discovery Learning Methods Assisted by Geogebra. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies, 1(2), 116–119.

Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day. International Society for Technology in Education.

Bichelmeyer, B. (2005). The ADDIE model: A metaphor for the lack of clarity in the field of IDT. IDT Record, 1–7.

Bikanga Ada, M. (2018). Using design-based research to develop a Mobile Learning Framework for Assessment Feedback. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 13(1).

Chick, R. C. (2020). Using Technology to Maintain the Education of Residents During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Surgical Education, 77(4), 729–732.

Corbeil, J. R., Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2005). EDTC 6321: Instructional Design SUMMER I SYLLABUS. Pearson.

Davies, R. S. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(4), 563–580.

Fatahillah, A., Puspitasari, I. D., & Hussen, S. (2020). The development of Schoology web-based learning media with GeoGebra to improve the ICT literacy on quadratic functions. JRAMathEdu (Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education), 5(3), 304–316.

Firdausy, A. R., Setyaningsih, N., Ishabu, L. S., & Waluyo, M. (2019). The Contribution of Student Activity and Learning Facilities to Learning Independency and it’s Impact on Mathematics Learning Outcomes in Junior High School. Indonesian Journal on Learning and Advanced Education (IJOLAE), 1(2), 29–37.

Flipped Learning Network (FLN). (2014). What Is Flipped Learning ? The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P. In Flipped Learning Network.

Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction. Longman Publishing.

Hermuttaqien, B. P. F., Sata, H. R., & Wadu, L. B. (2019). Efektivitas Media Pembelajaran Geogebra dalam Meningkatkan Pemahaman Konsep Geometri Calon Guru Sekolah Dasar (The Effectiveness of Geogebra Learning Media in Improving Understanding of Geometry Concepts of Prospective Elementary School Teachers). Jurnal Inspirasi Pendidikan, 9(1), 39–44.

Hidayati, K., & Listyani, E. (2013). IMPROVING INSTRUMENTS OF STUDENTS’ SELF-REGULATED LEARNING. Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika Univertias Negeri Yogyakarta.

Hohenwarter, M., Jarvis, D., & Lavicza, Z. (2009). Linking Geometry, Algebra and Mathematics Teachers: GeoGebra Software and the Establishment of the International GeoGebra Institute. International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education, 16(2), 83–87.

Houston, K., & Lazenbatt, A. (1996). A peer-tutoring scheme to support independent learning and group project work in mathematics. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 21(3), 251–266.

Hubbard, R. S. (1994). How Effective Is Self-Directed Learning at Generating Successful Learning Experiences, and What Is Its Role within Higher Education? The Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

Hwang, G.-J., Lai, C.-L., & Wang, S.-Y. (2015). Seamless flipped learning: a mobile technology-enhanced flipped classroom with effective learning strategies. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(4), 449–473.

Ilmi, Z., Darma, D. C., & Azis, M. (2020). Independence in Learning, Education Management, and Industry 4.0: Habitat Indonesia during COVID-19. Journal of Anthropology of Sport and Physical Education, 4(4), 63–66.

Indartono, S. (2019). The Influence of Instructional Syntax to Engage EFL Students in Online Learning Environment. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistic, 4(1), 121–132.

Ishartono, N., Alfian, I. A., & Firdaus, N. (2016). Pelatihan Penggunaan Software Geogebra Pada Materi Bangun Ruang Dimensi Tiga Untuk Guru-Guru Matematika Sekolah Menengah Muhammadiyah Se-Sukoharjo (Training on the Use of Geogebra Software in Three Dimensional Space Building Materials for Muhammadiyah Mid. The 4th University Research Coloquium 2016, 264–270.

Ishartono, N., Nurcahyo, A., Waluyo, M., Prayitno, H. J., & Hanifah, M. (2022). Integrating Geogebra Into the Flipped Learning Approach To Improve Students ’ Self-Regulated Learning During the Covid-19 Pandemic : an. Journal on Mathematics Education, 13(1), 69–85.

Judith, H., & Markus, H. (2008). Introduction to GeoGebra. Geogebra.

K, M. E., Thomas, L., & Varghese, A. J. (2020). COVID -19 A Once-in-a-Century Pandemic ? International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 9(3), 2018–2020.

Kemendikbud. (2020). Surat Edaran Tentang Pelaksanaan Pendidikan dalam masa Darurat Covid-19 (Decree on the Implementation of Education in the Covid-19 Emergency).

Kholid, M. N., Pradana, L. N., Maharani, S., & Swastika, A. (2022). GEOGEBRA IN PROJECT-BASED LEARNING (GEO-PJBL): A DYNAMIC TOOL FOR ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY COURSE. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 12(1), 112–120.

Klemer, A., & Rapoport, S. (2020). Origami and GeoGebra activities contribute to geometric thinking in second graders. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(11).

Kllogjeri, P. (2010). GeoGebra: A global platform for teaching and learning math together and using the synergy of mathematicians. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 2(3), 681–687.

Koivisto, J.-M., Hannula, L., Boje, R. B., Prescott, S., Bland, A., Rekola, L., & Haho, P. (2018). Design-Based Research in Designing the Model for Educating Simulation Facilitators. Nurse Education in Practice, 29, 206–2011.

Kristanto, Y. D., Amin, S. M., & Khabibah, S. (2016a). The Development of Investigative Learning Materials Using Computer Assisted Instruction in the Topic of Reflection for Grade VII. JRAMathEdu (Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education), 1(2), 172–182.

Kristanto, Y. D., Amin, S. M., & Khabibah, S. (2016b). The Development of Investigative Learning Materials Using Computer Assisted Instruction in the Topic of Reflection for Grade VII. Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education, 1(2), 172–182.

Kusumah, Y. S., Kustiawati, D., & Herman, T. (2020). The effect of geogebra in three-dimensional geometry learning on students’ mathematical communication ability. International Journal of Instruction, 13(2), 895–908.

Kusumaningrum, D. E., Budiarti, E. M., Triwiyanto, T., & Utari, R. (2020). The Effect of Distance Learning in an Online Learning Framework on Student Learning Independence during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Proceedings - 2020 6th International Conference on Education and Technology, ICET 2020, 182–185.

Latorre-Cosculluela, C., Suárez, C., Quiroga, S., Sobradiel-Sierra, N., Lozano-Blasco, R., & Rodríguez-Martínez, A. (2021). Flipped Classroom model before and during COVID-19: using technology to develop 21st century skills. Interactive Technology and Smart Education.

Liaw, S. S., Huang, H. M., & Chen, G. D. (2007). An activity-theoretical approach to investigate learners’ factors toward e-learning systems. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(4), 1906–1920.

Lin, H. C., Hwang, G. J., & Hsu, Y. D. (2019). Effects of ASQ-based flipped learning on nurse practitioner learners’ nursing skills, learning achievement and learning perceptions. Computers and Education, 139(April), 207–221.

Little, D. (1996). Learner Autonomy: Some Steps in the Evolution of Theory and Practice. TEANGA: The Irish Yearbook of Applied Linguistics.

Littlewood, W. (1999). Defining and developing autonomy in East Asian contexts. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 71–94.

Magomedov, I. A., Khaliev, M. S. U., & Khubolov, S. M. (2020). The negative and positive impact of the pandemic on education. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1691(1).

McHugh, M. L. (2012). Lessons in biostatistics interrater reliability : the kappa statistic. Biochemica Medica, 22(3), 276–282.

McKenney, S., & Reeves, T. C. (2014). Educational design research. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 131-140). Springer, New York, NY.

Meltzer, D. E. (2002). The relationship between mathematics preparation and conceptual learning gains in physics: A possible “hidden variable” in diagnostic pretest scores. American Journal of Physics, 70(12), 1259–1268.

Ministry of Education (MOE). (2020). Surat Edaran Tentang Pelaksanaan Pendidikan dalam masa Darurat Covid-19 (Decree on the Implementation of Education in the Covid-19 Emergency).

Murillo-Zamorano, L. R., Sánchez, J. Á. L., & Godoy-Caballero, A. L. (2019). How the flipped classroom affects knowledge, skills, and engagement in higher education: Effects on students’ satisfaction. Computers and Education, 141(June).

Nerantzi, C. (2020). The use of peer instruction and flipped learning to support flexible blended learning during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Management and Applied Research, 7(2), 184–195. classroom peer instruction 6July20.pdf

Nisiyatussani, Ayuningtyas, V., Fathurrohman, M., & Anriani, N. (2018). GeoGebra applets design and development for junior high school students to learn quadrilateral mathematics concepts. Journal on Mathematics Education, 9(1), 27–40.

Nuraeni, Z., Indaryanti, I., & Sukmaningthias, N. (2021). Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Bercirikan CTL Berbantuan GeoGebra Menggunakan Model Flipped Learning (Development of GeoGebra Assisted CTL Learning Tools Using the Flipped Learning Model). Jurnal Elemen, 7(1), 56–67.

O’Flaherty, J., Phillips, C., Karanicolas, S., Snelling, C., & Winning, T. (2015). Erratum: The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review (The Internet and Higher Education (2015) 25 (85-95)). Internet and Higher Education, 27, 90.

Purwanto, A., Fahlevi, M., Budi Santoso, P., Setyo Radyawanto, A., & Anwar, C. (2020). Exploring the Covid-19 Pandemic Impact on the Indonesian Students Performance. Journal of Critical Review, 7(15), 2020–2035.

Rahiem, M. D. H. (2020). The emergency remote learning experience of university students in Indonesia amidst the COVID-19 crisis. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(6), 1–26.

Reeves, T. (2006). Design research from a technology perspective. In Educational design research (pp. 64–78). Routledge.

Rotellar, C., & Cain, J. (2016). Research, perspectives, and recommendations on implementing the flipped classroom. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(2), 1–9.

Sakai, S., Takagi, a, & Chu, M. (2010). Promoting Learner Autonomy: Student Perceptions of Responsibilities in a Language Classroom in East Asia. Educational Perspectives, 43(1), 12–27.

Saputra, E., & Fahrizal, E. (2019). The development of mathematics teaching materials through geogebra software to improve learning independence. Malikussaleh Journal of Mathematics Learning (MJML), 2(2), 39-44.

Septian, A., Inayah, S., Suwarman, R. F., & Nugraha, R. (2019). GeoGebra-Assisted Problem Based Learning to Improve Mathematical Problem Solving Ability. In M. Irfan (Ed.), Proceedings of the SEMANTIK Conference of Mathematics Education (SEMANTIK 2019) (Vol. 467, Issue Semantik, pp. 67–71). Atlantis Press.

Sharma, N., Lau, C. S., Doherty, I., & Harbutt, D. (2015). How flipped the medical classroom. Medical Teacher, 37(4), 327–330.

Sierpinska, A., Bobos, G., & Knipping, C. (2008). Sources of students’ frustration in pre-university level, prerequisite mathematics courses. In Instructional Science (Vol. 36, Issue 4).

Slamet, S., Amrullah, A. M. K., Sutiah, S., & Ridho, A. (2021). Differences in the Experience of Lecturers and Students on Distance Learning In Higher Education in Indonesia : Case Study in the Pandemic of Covid-19. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 12(1), 742–747.

Smith, M. S., & Stein, M. K. (1998). Selecting and Creating Mathematical Tasks : From Research to Practice Knowing a Good Task When You See One Reflection : Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 3(February), 344–350.

Somthane, P. N., Landge, M. M., & Joshi, D. A. (2020). Corona Virus : Don ’ t be Afraid ; Be Safe. International Journal of Science and Research, 9(4), 21–25.

Subakri, & Annizar, A. M. (2021). The effects of covid-19 in learning: Effective and efficient online learning models of mathematical statistics and real analysis from the students’ perspective. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1836(1), 1–11.

Suharsimi, A. (2006). Prosedur penelitian suatu pendekatan praktik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Sutama, Prayitno, H. J., Ishartono, N., & Sari, D. P. (2020). Development of Mathematics Learning Process by Using Flipped Classroom Integrated by STEAM Education in Senior High School. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(8), 3690–3697.

Tanti, Maison, Syefrinando, B., Daryanto, M., & Salma, H. (2020). Students’ self-regulation and motivation in learning science. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 9(4), 865–873.

Ustun, A. B., & Tracey, M. W. (2020). An effective way of designing blended learning: A three phase design-based research approach. Education and Information Technologies, 25(3), 1529–1552.

Usuki, M. (2000). Promoting learner autonomy : Learning from the Japanese language learners ’ perspectives.

Wan Ahmad, W. N. A., Sufahani, S. F., Zinober, A., Sudin, A. M., Ismoen, M., Maselan, N., & Ishartono, N. (2019). Nonstandard optimal control problem: Case study in an economical application of royalty problem. International Journal of Advances in Intelligent Informatics, 5(3).

Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). Designing Technology Enhanced Learning Environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 5–23.

Worldometer. (2020). COVID-19 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC. Worldometer.

Yamin, M., Saputra, A., & Deswila, N. (2020). Enhancing Critical Thinking in Analyzing Short Story “The Lazy Jack” Viewed from Identity Theory. Indonesian Journal on Learning and Advanced Education (IJOLAE), 3(1), 30–39.

Yustina, Syafii, W., & Vebrianto, R. (2020). The effects of blended learning and project-based learning on pre-service biology teachers’ creative thinking skills through online learning in the COVID-19 pandemic. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(3), 408–420.

Article Metrics

Abstract view(s): 747 time(s)
PDF: 497 time(s)


  • There are currently no refbacks.